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Long-Run Convergence of Ethnic Skill Differentials

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  • George J. Borjas

Abstract

This paper investigates if the ethnic skill differentials introduced into the United States by the inflow of very dissimilar immigrant groups during the Great Migration of 1880-1910 disappeared during the past century. An analysis of the 1910, 1940, and 1980 Censuses and the General Social Surveys revealed that ethnic differentials converge slowly. It might take four generations, or roughly 100 years, for the skill differentials introduced by the Great Migration to disappear. The analysis also indicates that the economic mobility experienced by American-born blacks resembles that of the white ethnic groups that made up the Great Migration.

Suggested Citation

  • George J. Borjas, 1994. "Long-Run Convergence of Ethnic Skill Differentials," NBER Working Papers 4641, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:4641
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    1. Romer, Paul M, 1986. "Increasing Returns and Long-run Growth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(5), pages 1002-1037, October.
    2. David Card & Alan B. Krueger, 1992. "School Quality and Black-White Relative Earnings: A Direct Assessment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 107(1), pages 151-200.
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    4. Borjas, George J, 1993. "The Intergenerational Mobility of Immigrants," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 11(1), pages 113-135, January.
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    6. Heckman, James J & Payner, Brook S, 1989. "Determining the Impact of Federal Antidiscrimination Policy on the Economic Status of Blacks: A Study of South Carolina," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(1), pages 138-177, March.
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    Cited by:

    1. repec:pit:wpaper:289 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Andrés Romeu & M. Dolores Collado & Ignacio Ortuño Ortín, 2006. "Vertical Transmission Of Consumption Behavior And The Distribution Of Surnames," Working Papers. Serie AD 2006-09, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
    3. Rodriguez-Pose, Andres & von Berlepsch, Viola, 2012. "When migrants rule: the legacy of mass migration on economic development in the US," CEPR Discussion Papers 9122, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    4. Derek Hum & Wayne Simpson, 2002. "Analysis of the Performance of Immigrant Wages Using Panel Data," 10th International Conference on Panel Data, Berlin, July 5-6, 2002 C2-1, International Conferences on Panel Data.
    5. Joel Perlmann, 2002. "Poles and Italians then, Mexicans Now? Immigrant-to-Native Wage Ratios, 1910 and 1940," Method and Hist of Econ Thought 0203002, EconWPA.
    6. Christian Dustmann & Nikolaos Theodoropoulos, 2010. "Ethnic minority immigrants and their children in Britain," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 62(2), pages 209-233, April.
    7. James P. Smith, 2006. "Immigrants and the Labor Market," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 24(2), pages 203-234, April.
    8. Roger Waldinger & Joel Perlmann, 1997. "Second Generations: Past, Present, Future," Macroeconomics 9712009, EconWPA.
    9. repec:aea:jeclit:v:55:y:2017:i:4:p:1311-45 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. MacKinnon, Mary & Parent, Daniel, 2012. "Resisting the melting pot: The long term impact of maintaining identity for Franco-Americans in New England," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 49(1), pages 30-59.
    11. Marianne Bertrand & Erzo F. P. Luttmer & Sendhil Mullainathan, 2000. "Network Effects and Welfare Cultures," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 115(3), pages 1019-1055.
    12. Aydemir, Abdurrahman & Chen, Wen-Hao & Corak, Miles, 2005. "Mobilite intergenerationnelle des gains chez les enfants des immigrants au Canada," Direction des etudes analytiques : documents de recherche 2005267f, Statistics Canada, Direction des etudes analytiques.
    13. Abdurrahman Aydemir & Wen-Hao Chen & Miles Corak, 2009. "Intergenerational Earnings Mobility among the Children of Canadian Immigrants," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 91(2), pages 377-397, May.
    14. Ran Abramitzky & Leah Boustan, 2017. "Immigration in American Economic History," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 55(4), pages 1311-1345, December.
    15. Finnie, Ross & Meng, Ronald, 2006. "The Importance of Functional Literacy: Reading and Math Skills and Labour Market Outcomes of High School Drop-outs," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 2006275e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
    16. Gordon, Robert J, 2000. "Interpreting the 'One Big Wave' in US Long-Term Productivity Growth," CEPR Discussion Papers 2608, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    17. Robert J. Gordon, 2000. "Interpreting the "One Big Wave" in U.S. Long-Term Productivity Growth," NBER Working Papers 7752, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    18. Rigobon, Roberto & Stoker, Thomas M., 2004. "Censored Regressors and Expansion Bias," Working papers 4451-03, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
    19. Kahanec, Martin, 2005. "Two Faces of the ICT Revolution: Desegregation and Minority-Majority Earnings Inequality," IZA Discussion Papers 1872, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    20. Daniel Aaronson & Bhashkar Mazumder, 2005. "Intergenerational economic mobility in the U.S., 1940 to 2000," Working Paper Series WP-05-12, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
    21. Kahanec, Martin, 2006. "The Substitutability of Labor of Selected Ethnic Groups in the US Labor Market," IZA Discussion Papers 1945, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

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