The Complexity of Immigrant Generations: Implications for Assessing the Socioeconomic Integration of Hispanics and Asians
Much of the socioeconomic mobility achieved by U.S. immigrant families takes place across rather than within generations. When assessing the long-term integration of immigrants, it is therefore important to analyze differences not just between the foreign-born and U.S-born, but also across generations of the U.S.-born. Because of data limitations, however, virtually all studies of the later-generation descendants of immigrants rely on subjective measures of ethnic self-identification rather than arguably more objective measures based on the countries of birth of the respondent and his ancestors. In this context, biases can arise from "ethnic attrition" (e.g., U.S.-born individuals who do not self-identify as Hispanic despite having ancestors who were immigrants from a Spanish-speaking country). Analyzing 1994-2010 data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), we present evidence that such ethnic attrition is sizeable and selective for the second- and third-generation populations of key Hispanic and Asian immigrant groups. In addition, our results suggest that ethnic attrition generates measurement biases that vary across national origin groups in direction as well as magnitude, and that correcting for these biases is likely to raise the socioeconomic standing of the U.S.-born descendants of most Hispanic immigrants relative to their Asian counterparts. Finally, although changes to the CPS Hispanic origin and race questions adopted in 2003 have substantially lowered attrition rates for second- and third-generation Hispanics and Asians, ethnic attrition remains a significant issue even with the improved questionnaire.
|Date of creation:||Jan 2012|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
|Order Information:|| Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- David Austen-Smith & Roland G. Fryer, 2005. "An Economic Analysis of "Acting White"," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 120(2), pages 551-583.
- Furtado, Delia, 2006.
"Human Capital and Interethnic Marriage Decisions,"
IZA Discussion Papers
1989, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- George J. Borjas, 1992. "Ethnic Capital and Intergenerational Mobility," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 107(1), pages 123-150.
- Constant, Amelie & Zimmermann, Klaus F, 2009.
"Work and Money: Payoffs by Ethnic Identity and Gender,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
7366, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Amelie Constant & Klaus F. Zimmermann, 2009. "Work and Money: Payoffs by Ethnic Identity and Gender," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 908, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
- Constant, Amelie F. & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 2009. "Work and Money: Payoffs by Ethnic Identity and Gender," IZA Discussion Papers 4275, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Arthur Sakamoto & Huei-Hsia Wu & Jessie Tzeng, 2000. "The declining significance of race among American men during The latter half of the twentieth century," Demography, Springer, vol. 37(1), pages 41-51, February.
- George A. Akerlof & Rachel E. Kranton, 2000. "Economics and Identity," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 115(3), pages 715-753.
- Alberto Bisin & Eleonora Patacchini & Thierry Verdier & Yves Zenou, 2011.
"Ethnic identity and labour market outcomes of immigrants in Europe,"
CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 26(01), pages 57-92, January.
- Alberto Bisin & Eleonora Patacchini & Thierry Verdier & Yves Zenou, 2011. "Ethnic Identity and Labor-Market Outcomes of Immigrants in Europe," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 1103, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
- Bisin, Alberto & Patacchini, Eleonora & Verdier, Thierry & Zenou, Yves, 2011. "Ethnic Identity and Labor-Market Outcomes of Immigrants in Europe," CEPR Discussion Papers 8212, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Bisin, Alberto & Patacchini, Eleonora & Verdier, Thierry & Zenou, Yves, 2011. "Ethnic Identity and Labor-Market Outcomes of Immigrants in Europe," Research Papers in Economics 2011:2, Stockholm University, Department of Economics.
- Hoyt Bleakley & Aimee Chin, 2010.
"Age at Arrival, English Proficiency, and Social Assimilation among US Immigrants,"
American Economic Journal: Applied Economics,
American Economic Association, vol. 2(1), pages 165-92, January.
- Hoyt Bleakley & Aimee Chin, 2009. "Age at Arrival, English Proficiency, and Social Assimilation Among U.S. Immigrants," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 0913, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
- Alberto Bisin & Giorgio Topa & Thierry Verdier, 2004. "Religious Intermarriage and Socialization in the United States," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 112(3), pages 615-664, June.
- Hoyt Bleakley & Aimee Chin, 2004. "Language Skills and Earnings: Evidence from Childhood Immigrants," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 86(2), pages 481-496, May.
- Charles Hirschman, 2001. "The educational enrollment of immigrant youth: A test of the segmented-assimilation hypothesis," Demography, Springer, vol. 38(3), pages 317-336, August.
- Alberto Bisin & Eleonora Patacchini & Thierry Verdier & Yves Zenou, 2011. "Ethnic identity and labour market outcomes of immigrants in Europe," Post-Print halshs-00754564, HAL.
- Mason, Patrick L., 2004. "Annual income, hourly wages, and identity Among Mexican Americans and other Latinos," MPRA Paper 11326, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Borjas, George J. (ed.), 2007. "Mexican Immigration to the United States," National Bureau of Economic Research Books, University of Chicago Press, edition 2, number 9780226066325.
- Reynolds Farley, 1991. "The new census question about ancestry: What did it tell us?," Demography, Springer, vol. 28(3), pages 411-429, August.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp6276. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.