The Impact of Gender Quotas on Electoral Participation: Evidence from Italian Municipalities
We analyze the effect of gender quotas on electoral participation by using a rich dataset of Italian municipal elections. Gender quotas were in force in Italy from 1993 until 1995. Because of the short period covered by the reform, some municipalities never voted using gender quota. This allows us to identify a treatment and a control group and to estimate the effects of gender quotas by using a difference-in-differences estimation strategy. Notwithstanding electoral turnout shows a decreasing trend, we find that turnout has decreased significantly less in municipalities affected by the reform, suggesting that gender quotas have produced an increase in electoral participation. The effect on electoral turnout is driven by an increase in valid ballots, although we find also an increase in blank ballots. The effect is smaller in the Southern part of the country, typically characterized by more traditional gender roles. We also find that female electors react more than males probably because they expect female policy-makers to give particular attention to women’s interests.
|Date of creation:||Aug 2012|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: +39 0984 492413
Fax: +39 0984 492421
Web page: http://www.unical.it/portale/strutture/dipartimenti_240/disesf/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Alessandro Lizzeri & Nicola Persico, 2004. "Why Did the Elites Extend the Suffrage? Democracy and the Scope of Government, With an Application to Britain's "Age of Reform"," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 119(2), pages 705-763, May.
- Raghabendra Chattopadhyay & Esther Duflo, 2004.
"Women as Policy Makers: Evidence from a Randomized Policy Experiment in India,"
Econometric Society, vol. 72(5), pages 1409-1443, 09.
- Esther Duflo & Raghabendra Chattopadhyay, 2004. "Women as policy makers: Evidence from a randomized policy experiment in india," Framed Field Experiments 00224, The Field Experiments Website.
- Alberto F. Alesina & Francesca Lotti & Paolo Emilio Mistrulli, 2013.
"Do Women Pay More For Credit? Evidence From Italy,"
Journal of the European Economic Association,
European Economic Association, vol. 11, pages 45-66, 01.
- Chin, Aimee & Prakash, Nishith, 2009.
"The Redistributive Effects of Political Reservation for Minorities: Evidence from India,"
IZA Discussion Papers
4391, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Chin, Aimee & Prakash, Nishith, 2011. "The redistributive effects of political reservation for minorities: Evidence from India," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 96(2), pages 265-277, November.
- Aimee Chin & Nishith Prakash, 2010. "The Redistributive Effects of Political Reservation for Minorities: Evidence from India," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 1003, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
- Aimee Chin & Nishith Prakash, 2010. "The Redistributive Effects of Political Reservation for Minorities: Evidence from India," NBER Working Papers 16509, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Anand Swamy & Stephen Knack & Young Lee & Omar Azfar, 2000.
"Gender and Corruption,"
Center for Development Economics
158, Department of Economics, Williams College.
- Kovenock, Dan & Roberson, Brian, 2011.
"Non-partisan ‘get-out-the-vote’ efforts and policy outcomes,"
European Journal of Political Economy,
Elsevier, vol. 27(4), pages 728-739.
- Dan Kovenock J. & Brian Roberson, 2009. "Non-Partisan 'Get-Out-the-Vote' Efforts and Policy Outcomes," CESifo Working Paper Series 2815, CESifo Group Munich.
- Kovenock, Dan & Roberson, Brian, 2009. "Non-partisan 'Get-out-the-vote' efforts and policy outcomes," Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Market Processes and Governance SP II 2009-07, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB).
- Casas-Arce, Pablo & Saiz, Albert, 2011. "Women and Power: Unwilling, Ineffective, or Held Back?," IZA Discussion Papers 5645, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Rohini Pande, 2002.
"Can mandated political representation increase policy influence for disadvantaged minorities? Theory and evidence from India,"
0102-62, Columbia University, Department of Economics.
- Rohini Pande, 2003. "Can Mandated Political Representation Increase Policy Influence for Disadvantaged Minorities? Theory and Evidence from India," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(4), pages 1132-1151, September.
- Patricia Funk & Christina Gathmann, 2008. "Gender gaps in policy making: Evidence from direct democracy in Switzerland," Economics Working Papers 1126, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
- Fumagalli, Eileen & Narciso, Gaia, 2012.
"Political institutions, voter turnout, and policy outcomes,"
European Journal of Political Economy,
Elsevier, vol. 28(2), pages 162-173.
- Eileen Fumagalli and Gaia Narciso, 2008. "Political Institutions, Voter Turnout and Policy Outcomes," The Institute for International Integration Studies Discussion Paper Series iiisdp268, IIIS.
- Eileen Fumagalli & Gaia Narciso, 2011. "Political Institutions, Voter Turnout and Policy Outcomes," Trinity Economics Papers tep0211, Trinity College Dublin, Department of Economics.
- Hillman, Arye L., 2010. "Expressive behavior in economics and politics," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 403-418, December.
- Irma Clots-Figueras, 2005.
"Women in politics: evidence from the Indian states,"
LSE Research Online Documents on Economics
19294, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
- Clots-Figueras, Irma, 2011. "Women in politics: Evidence from the Indian States," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(7-8), pages 664-690, August.
- Rigon, Massimiliano & Tanzi, Giulia M., 2011. "Does gender matter for public spending? Empirical evidence from Italian municipalities," MPRA Paper 34845, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Lori A. Beaman & Raghabendra Chattopadhyay & Esther Duflo & Rohini Pande & Petia Topalova, 2008.
"Powerful Women: Does Exposure Reduce Bias?,"
NBER Working Papers
14198, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Beaman, Lori & Chattopadhyay, Raghabendra & Duflo, Esther & Pande, Rohini & Topalova, Petia, 2008. "Powerful Women: Does Exposure Reduce Bias?," CEPR Discussion Papers 6922, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Beaman, Lori & Chattopadhyay, Raghebendra & Duflo, Esther & Pande, Rohini & Topalova, Petia, 2008. "Powerful Women: Does Exposure Reduce Bias?," Working Paper Series rwp08-037, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
- Petia Topalova & Esther Duflo & Rohini Pande & Lori Beaman & Raghabendra Chattopadhyay, 2008. "Powerful Women: Does Exposure Reduce Bias?," Working Papers id:1617, eSocialSciences.
- Chen, Li-Ju, 2009. "Do Gender Quotas Influence Women’s Representation and Policies?," Research Papers in Economics 2009:3, Stockholm University, Department of Economics.
- Mori, Yuko & Kurosaki, Takashi, 2011. "Does Political Reservation Affect Voting Behavior? Empirical Evidence from India," PRIMCED Discussion Paper Series 17, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
- Audinga Baltrunaite & Piera Bello & Alessandra Casarico & Paola Profeta, 2013.
"Gender quotas and the quality of politicians,"
- Blais, Andre & Young, Robert, 1999. " Why Do People Vote? An Experiment in Rationality," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 99(1-2), pages 39-55, April.
- Sascha O. Becker & Andrea Ichino, 2002. "Estimation of average treatment effects based on propensity scores," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 2(4), pages 358-377, November.
- Husted, Thomas A & Kenny, Lawrence W, 1997. "The Effect of the Expansion of the Voting Franchise on the Size of Government," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 105(1), pages 54-82, February.
- De Paola, Maria & Scoppa, Vincenzo & Lombardo, Rosetta, 2010.
"Can gender quotas break down negative stereotypes? Evidence from changes in electoral rules,"
Journal of Public Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 94(5-6), pages 344-353, June.
- Maria De Paola & Rosetta Lombardo & Vincenzo Scoppa, 2009. "Can Gender Quotas Break Down Negative Stereotypes? Evidence From Changes In Electoral Rules," Working Papers 200910, Università della Calabria, Dipartimento di Economia, Statistica e Finanza (Ex Dipartimento di Economia e Statistica).
- Yuko Mori & Takashi Kurosaki, 2011. "Does Political Reservation Affect Voting Behavior? Empirical Evidence from India," Global COE Hi-Stat Discussion Paper Series gd11-205, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
- Massimiliano Rigon & Giulia Martina Tanzi, 2012. "Does gender matter for public spending? Empirical evidence from Italian municipalities," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 862, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
- Anthony Downs, 1957. "An Economic Theory of Political Action in a Democracy," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 65, pages 135.
- Irma Clots-Figueras, 2007.
"Are female leaders good for education? : Evidence from India,"
Economics Working Papers
we077342, Universidad Carlos III, Departamento de Economía.
- Irma Clots-Figueras, 2012. "Are Female Leaders Good for Education? Evidence from India," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 4(1), pages 212-44, January.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:clb:wpaper:201206. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Giovanni Dodero)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.