Does gender matter for public spending? Empirical evidence from Italian municipalities
This paper studies whether municipal expenditure in Italy is influenced by female representation in city councils. To correctly capture the causal relation we use the instrumental variable technique. Our instrument is based on a temporary change in the Italian normative occurred between 1993 and 1995 that reserved a gender quota in party lists for municipal elections, causing an exogenous change in the number of women elected in city councils. We take advantage of the fact that not all the municipalities have been treated by the law, due to its short period of enforcement. Despite the existence of gender specific preferences in the society, we find no evidence that the allocation of resources among different spending categories is affected by the gender of politicians. Our results are consistent with the Median voter theorem. Alternatively, they may suggest that the gender is not a determinant of politicians’ voting behaviour, implying that the preferences of the women involved in political activities are close to those of their male colleagues.
|Date of creation:||Nov 2011|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Ludwigstraße 33, D-80539 Munich, Germany|
Web page: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Patricia Funk & Christina Gathmann, 2015.
"Gender gaps in policy making: evidence from direct democracy in Switzerland,"
CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 30(81), pages 141-181.
- Patricia Funk & Christina Gathmann, 2008. "Gender gaps in policy making: Evidence from direct democracy in Switzerland," Economics Working Papers 1126, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
- Tim Besley & Stephen Coate, .
""An Economic Model of Representative Democracy'',"
CARESS Working Papres
95-02, University of Pennsylvania Center for Analytic Research and Economics in the Social Sciences.
- Raghabendra Chattopadhyay & Esther Duflo, 2004.
"Women as Policy Makers: Evidence from a Randomized Policy Experiment in India,"
Econometric Society, vol. 72(5), pages 1409-1443, 09.
- Raghabendra Chattopadhyay & Esther Duflo, 2004. "Women as policy makers: Evidence from a randomized policy experiment in india," Framed Field Experiments 00224, The Field Experiments Website.
- Maria De Paola & Rosetta Lombardo & Vincenzo Scoppa, 2009.
"Can Gender Quotas Break Down Negative Stereotypes? Evidence From Changes In Electoral Rules,"
200910, Università della Calabria, Dipartimento di Economia, Statistica e Finanza (Ex Dipartimento di Economia e Statistica).
- De Paola, Maria & Scoppa, Vincenzo & Lombardo, Rosetta, 2010. "Can gender quotas break down negative stereotypes? Evidence from changes in electoral rules," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 94(5-6), pages 344-353, June.
- Fernando Ferreira & Joseph Gyourko, 2009.
"Do Political Parties Matter? Evidence from U.S. Cities,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
Oxford University Press, vol. 124(1), pages 399-422.
- Fernando Ferreira & Joseph Gyourko, 2007. "Do Political Parties Matter? Evidence from U.S. Cities," NBER Working Papers 13535, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Svaleryd, Helena, 2009.
"Women's representation and public spending,"
European Journal of Political Economy,
Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 186-198, June.
- M. Daniele Paserman & Stefano Gagliarducci, 2011.
"Gender Interactions within Hierarchies: Evidence from the Political Arena,"
Boston University - Department of Economics - Working Papers Series
WP2011-048, Boston University - Department of Economics.
- Stefano Gagliarducci & M. Daniele Paserman, 2012. "Gender Interactions within Hierarchies: Evidence from the Political Arena," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 79(3), pages 1021-1052.
- Stefano Gagliarducci & M. Daniele Paserman, 2009. "Gender Interactions within Hierarchies: Evidence from the Political Arena," NBER Working Papers 14893, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Gagliarducci, Stefano & Paserman, M. Daniele, 2009. "Gender Interactions within Hierarchies: Evidence from the Political Arena," IZA Discussion Papers 4128, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Gagliarducci, Stefano & Paserman, M. Daniele, 2009. "Gender Interactions Within Hierarchies: Evidence from the Political Arena," CEPR Discussion Papers 7272, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Martin J. Osborne & Al Slivinski, 1996.
"A Model of Political Competition with Citizen-Candidates,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
Oxford University Press, vol. 111(1), pages 65-96.
- Martin J. Osborne & Al Slivinksi, 1995. "A Model of Political Competition with Citizen-Candidates," Department of Economics Working Papers 1995-01, McMaster University.
- Anthony Downs, 1957. "An Economic Theory of Political Action in a Democracy," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 65, pages 135-135.
- Rachel Croson & Uri Gneezy, 2009. "Gender Differences in Preferences," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 47(2), pages 448-74, June.
- Irma Clots-Figueras, 2012.
"Are Female Leaders Good for Education? Evidence from India,"
American Economic Journal: Applied Economics,
American Economic Association, vol. 4(1), pages 212-44, January.
- Clots-Figueras, Irma, 2007. "Are female leaders good for education? : Evidence from India," UC3M Working papers. Economics we077342, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Departamento de Economía.
- Alesina, Alberto, 1988. "Credibility and Policy Convergence in a Two-Party System with Rational Voters," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(4), pages 796-805, September.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:34845. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Joachim Winter)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.