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Schools, Education and Social Exclusion

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  • Jo Sparkes

Abstract

A review of research evidence suggests that low levels of educational attainment are crucial in generating and sustaining social exclusion. Test scores at school are the most effective predictor of many adult outcomes. School attendance and soft skills are also important. Reviewing the factors accounting for the variance in educational attainment, it is evident that combinations of social disadvantage powerfully affect school performance with up to 75% of school variation in 16 year old attainment at GCSE associated with pupil intake factors. But school factors can raise attainment by up to 14 GCSE points for average pupils. Hence schools are a good place to improve children's skills. Research suggests that higher per pupil spending, smaller class sizes and teacher quality in schools all seem to make a difference and some have most impact on disadvantaged pupils. However an approach which focuses solely on the improvement of average school performance is likely to be a less effective means of reducing social exclusion than an approach which creates incentives that rewards improvement among the least able. Other factors such as the behaviour and hiring decisions of employers also require attention if improved educational performance is to provide high pay offs.

Suggested Citation

  • Jo Sparkes, 1999. "Schools, Education and Social Exclusion," CASE Papers 029, Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, LSE.
  • Handle: RePEc:cep:sticas:029
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    File URL: http://sticerd.lse.ac.uk/dps/case/cp/CASEpaper29.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Christian Dustmann & Najma Rajah & Stephen Smith, 1997. "Teenage truancy, part-time working and wages," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 10(4), pages 425-442.
    2. Dolton, Peter & O'Neill, Donal, 1996. "Unemployment Duration and the Restart Effect: Some Experimental Evidence," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(435), pages 387-400, March.
    3. Anne West & Hazel Pennell, 1997. "Educational Reform and School Choice in England and Wales," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 5(3), pages 285-305.
    4. Arulampalam, Wiji & Stewart, Mark B, 1995. "The Determinants of Individual Unemployment Durations in an Era of High Unemployment," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 105(429), pages 321-332, March.
    5. O'Brien, Margaret & Jones, Deborah, 1999. "Children, Parental Employment and Educational Attainment: An English Case Study," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 23(5), pages 599-621, September.
    6. Hanushek, Eric A, 1986. "The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 24(3), pages 1141-1177, September.
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    Cited by:

    1. Ferguson, Neil T.N. & Michaelsen, Maren M., 2015. "Money changes everything? Education and regional deprivation revisited," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 129-147.
    2. Cabus, Sofie J. & De Witte, Kristof, 2012. "Naming and shaming in a ‘fair’ way. On disentangling the influence of policy in observed outcomes," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 34(5), pages 767-787.

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