Testing the 'Waterbed' Effect in Mobile Telephony
This paper examines the impact of regulatory intervention to cut termination rates of calls from fixed lines to mobile phones. Under quite general conditions of competition, theory suggests that lower termination charges will result in higher prices for mobile subscribers, a phenomenon known as the "waterbed" effect. The waterbed effect has long been hypothesized as a feature of many two-sided markets and especially the mobile network industry. Using a uniquely constructed panel of mobile operators' prices and profit margins across more than twenty countries over six years, we document empirically the existence and magnitude of this effect. Our results suggest that the waterbed effect is strong, but not full. We also provide evidence that both competition and market saturation, but most importantly their interaction, affect the overall impact of the waterbed effect on prices.
|Date of creation:||Oct 2007|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://cep.lse.ac.uk/_new/publications/series.asp?prog=CEP|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- repec:rje:randje:v:37:y:2006:3:p:645-667 is not listed on IDEAS
- Berry, Steven & Levinsohn, James & Pakes, Ariel, 1995. "Automobile Prices in Market Equilibrium," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 63(4), pages 841-90, July.
- Elena Argentesi & Lapo Filistrucchi, 2007.
"Estimating market power in a two-sided market: The case of newspapers,"
Journal of Applied Econometrics,
John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(7), pages 1247-1266.
- Elena Argentesi & Lapo Filistrucchi, 2005. "Estimating market power in a two-sided market: the case of newspapers," Economics Working Papers ECO2005/07, European University Institute.
- Calzada, Joan & Valletti, Tommaso, 2005.
"Network Competition and Entry Deterrence,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
5381, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Mark Armstrong, 2006.
"Competition in two‐sided markets,"
RAND Journal of Economics,
RAND Corporation, vol. 37(3), pages 668-691, 09.
- Timothy Besley & Anne Case, 1994.
"Unnatural Experiments? Estimating the Incidence of Endogenous Policies,"
NBER Working Papers
4956, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Besley, Timothy & Case, Anne, 2000. "Unnatural Experiments? Estimating the Incidence of Endogenous Policies," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 110(467), pages F672-94, November.
- Jullien, Bruno & Rey, Patrick & Sand-Zantman, Wilfried, 2009. "Mobile Call Termination Revisited," TSE Working Papers 10-198, Toulouse School of Economics (TSE), revised Aug 2010.
- Kaiser, Ulrich & Wright, Julian, 2006.
"Price structure in two-sided markets: Evidence from the magazine industry,"
International Journal of Industrial Organization,
Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 1-28, January.
- Kaiser, Ulrich & Wright, Julian, 2004. "Price Structure in Two-sided Markets: Evidence from the Magazine Industry?," ZEW Discussion Papers 04-80, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
- Laporte, Audrey & Windmeijer, Frank, 2005.
"Estimation of panel data models with binary indicators when treatment effects are not constant over time,"
Elsevier, vol. 88(3), pages 389-396, September.
- Audrey Laporte & Frank Windmeijer, 2005. "Estimation of Panel Data Models with Binary Indicators when Treatment Effects are not Constant over Time," Working Papers laporte-04-01, University of Toronto, Department of Economics.
- Armstrong, Mark & Wright, Julian, 2007. "Mobile call termination in the UK," MPRA Paper 2344, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Card, David & Krueger, Alan B, 1994.
"Minimum Wages and Employment: A Case Study of the Fast-Food Industry in New Jersey and Pennsylvania,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 84(4), pages 772-93, September.
- David Card & Alan B. Krueger, 1993. "Minimum Wages and Employment: A Case Study of the Fast Food Industry in New Jersey and Pennsylvania," NBER Working Papers 4509, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Tomaso Duso, 2005.
"Lobbying and regulation in a political economy: Evidence from the U.S. cellular industry,"
Springer, vol. 122(3), pages 251-276, March.
- Tomaso Duso, 2001. "Lobbying and Regulation in a Political Economy: Evidence from the US Cellular Industry," CIG Working Papers FS IV 01-03, Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin (WZB), Research Unit: Competition and Innovation (CIG).
- Marianne Bertrand & Esther Duflo & Sendhil Mullainathan, 2002.
"How Much Should We Trust Differences-in-Differences Estimates?,"
NBER Working Papers
8841, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Marianne Bertrand & Esther Duflo & Sendhil Mullainathan, 2004. "How Much Should We Trust Differences-In-Differences Estimates?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 119(1), pages 249-275.
- repec:rje:randje:v:37:y:2006:3:p:668-691 is not listed on IDEAS
- Armstrong, M., 1996. "Network interconnection," Discussion Paper Series In Economics And Econometrics 9625, Economics Division, School of Social Sciences, University of Southampton.
- Duso, Tomaso & Roller, Lars-Hendrik, 2003. "Endogenous deregulation: evidence from OECD countries," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 81(1), pages 67-71, October.
- Armstrong, Mark, 2001. "The theory of access pricing and interconnection," MPRA Paper 15608, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Jean-Jacques Laffont & Patrick Rey & Jean Tirole, 1998. "Network Competition: I. Overview and Nondiscriminatory Pricing," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 29(1), pages 1-37, Spring.
- Armstrong, Mark, 1998. "Network Interconnection in Telecommunications," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 108(448), pages 545-64, May.
- Marc Rysman, 2006. "An Empirical Analysis of Payment Card Usage," Boston University - Department of Economics - Working Papers Series WP2006-002, Boston University - Department of Economics.
- Tommaso Valletti & George Houpis, 2005. "Mobile Termination: What is the “Right” Charge?," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 28(3), pages 235-258, November.
- Marc Rysman, 2004. "Competition Between Networks: A Study of the Market for Yellow Pages," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 71(2), pages 483-512.
- Wright, Julian, 2002. "Access Pricing under Competition: An Application to Cellular Networks," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 50(3), pages 289-315, September.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cep:cepdps:dp0827. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.