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On-Net/Off-Net Price Discrimination and 'Bill-and-Keep' vs. 'Cost-Based' Regulation of Mobile Termination Rates

  • Harbord, David
  • Pagnozzi, Marco

This paper surveys the recent literature on competition between mobile network operators in the presence of call externalities and network effects. It shows that the regulation of mobile termination rates based on “long-run incremental costs” increases networks’ strategic incentives to inefficiently set high on-net/off-net price differentials, thus harming smaller networks and new entrants. The paper argues in favor of a “bill-and-keep” system for mobile-to-mobile termination, and presents international evidence in support of this conclusion.

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Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 14540.

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Date of creation: Jan 2008
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Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:14540
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  1. Gans, Joshua S. & King, Stephen P., 2000. "Mobile network competition, customer ignorance and fixed-to-mobile call prices," Information Economics and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 301-327, December.
  2. Cambini, Carlo & Valletti, Tommaso M., 2003. "Network competition with price discrimination: 'bill-and-keep' is not so bad after all," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 81(2), pages 205-213, November.
  3. Christos Genakos & Tommaso Valletti, 2008. "Testing the “Waterbed” Effect in Mobile Telephony," CEIS Research Paper 110, Tor Vergata University, CEIS, revised 11 Jul 2008.
  4. Calzada, Joan & Valletti, Tommaso, 2005. "Network Competition and Entry Deterrence," CEPR Discussion Papers 5381, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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  7. Ulrich Berger, 2004. "Access Charges in the Presence of Call Externalities," Industrial Organization 0408009, EconWPA, revised 31 Aug 2004.
  8. Gans, J.S. & King, S.P., 2000. "Using 'Bill and Keep' Interconnect Arrangements to Soften Network Competiti on," Department of Economics - Working Papers Series 739, The University of Melbourne.
  9. Hahn, Jong-Hee, 2003. "Nonlinear pricing of telecommunications with call and network externalities," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 21(7), pages 949-967, September.
  10. Wright Julian, 2002. "Bill and Keep as the Efficient Interconnection Regime?," Review of Network Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 1(1), pages 1-7, March.
  11. Andersson, Kjetil & Foros, Øystein & Steen, Frode, 2006. "Text and Voice: Complements, Substitutes or Both?," CEPR Discussion Papers 5780, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  12. Joshua S. Gans & Stephen P. King & Julian Wright, 2005. "Wireless Communications," Monash Economics Working Papers archive-45, Monash University, Department of Economics.
  13. Gruber, Harald & Verboven, Frank, 2001. "The diffusion of mobile telecommunications services in the European Union," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 45(3), pages 577-588, March.
  14. Berger Ulrich, 2005. "Access Charges in the Presence of Call Externalities," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 3(1), pages 1-18, January.
  15. Wouter Dessein, 2000. "Network Competition in Nonlinear Pricing," CIG Working Papers FS IV 00-22, Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin (WZB), Research Unit: Competition and Innovation (CIG).
  16. Hoernig, Steffen, 2006. "On-Net and Off-Net Pricing on Asymmetric Telecommunications Networks," CEPR Discussion Papers 5588, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  17. Daniel Birke, 2010. "Network effects, network structure and consumer interaction in mobile telecommunications in Europe and Asia," Post-Print hal-00870187, HAL.
  18. Littlechild, S.C., 0. "Mobile termination charges: Calling Party Pays versus Receiving Party Pays," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(5-6), pages 242-277, June.
  19. Armstrong, M., 1996. "Network interconnection," Discussion Paper Series In Economics And Econometrics 9625, Economics Division, School of Social Sciences, University of Southampton.
  20. Nakil Sung & Yong-Hun Lee, 2002. "Substitution between Mobile and Fixed Telephones in Korea," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 20(4), pages 367-374, June.
  21. Armstrong, Mark & Wright, Julian, 2007. "Mobile call termination in the UK," MPRA Paper 2344, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  22. Daniel Birke & G. Swann, 2006. "Network effects and the choice of mobile phone operator," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 16(1), pages 65-84, April.
  23. Wright, Julian, 2002. "Access Pricing under Competition: An Application to Cellular Networks," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 50(3), pages 289-315, September.
  24. Tommaso Valletti & George Houpis, 2005. "Mobile Termination: What is the “Right” Charge?," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 28(3), pages 235-258, November.
  25. Atiyas, Izak & Dogan, PInar, 0. "When good intentions are not enough: Sequential entry and competition in the Turkish mobile industry," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(8-9), pages 502-523, September.
  26. Berger, Ulrich, 2005. "Bill-and-keep vs. cost-based access pricing revisited," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 86(1), pages 107-112, January.
  27. Patrick Degraba, 2003. "Efficient Intercarrier Compensation for Competing Networks When Customers Share the Value of A Call," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 12(2), pages 207-230, 06.
  28. Michael Carter & Julian Wright, 1999. "Interconnection in Network Industries," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 14(1), pages 1-25, February.
  29. Degraba Patrick, 2002. "Bill and Keep as the Efficient Interconnection Regime?: A Reply," Review of Network Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 1(1), pages 1-5, March.
  30. Armstrong, Mark, 2001. "The theory of access pricing and interconnection," MPRA Paper 15608, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  31. Jean-Jacques Laffont & Patrick Rey & Jean Tirole, 1998. "Network Competition: I. Overview and Nondiscriminatory Pricing," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 29(1), pages 1-37, Spring.
  32. Daniel Birke & G. M. Peter Swann, 2005. "Social networks and choice of mobile phone operator," Occasional Papers 14, Industrial Economics Division.
  33. Ahn, Hyungtaik & Lee, Myeong-Ho, 1999. "An econometric analysis of the demand for access to mobile telephone networks," Information Economics and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 297-305, September.
  34. Jean-Jacques Laffont & Patrick Rey & Jean Tirole, 1998. "Network Competition: II. Price Discrimination," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 29(1), pages 38-56, Spring.
  35. Barros, Pedro Luis Pita & Cadima, Nuno, 2000. "The Impact of Mobile Phone Diffusion on the Fixed-Link Network," CEPR Discussion Papers 2598, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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