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Unemployment and Hours of Work: The North Atlantic Divide Revisited

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  • Christopher A. Pissarides

Abstract

I examine the dynamic evolutions of unemployment, hours of work and the service share since the war in the United States and Europe. The theoretical model brings together all three and emphasizes technological growth. Computations show that the very low unemployment in Europe in the 1960s was due to the high productivity growth associated with technological catch-up. Productivity also played a role in the dynamics of hours but a full explanation for the fast rise of service employment and the big fall in aggregate hours needs further research. Taxation has played a role but results are mixed.

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  • Christopher A. Pissarides, 2006. "Unemployment and Hours of Work: The North Atlantic Divide Revisited," CEP Discussion Papers dp0757, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  • Handle: RePEc:cep:cepdps:dp0757
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    Cited by:

    1. Richard Rogerson, 2008. "Structural Transformation and the Deterioration of European Labor Market Outcomes," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 116(2), pages 235-259, April.
    2. Christopher Tsoukis & Frederic Tournemaine, 2011. "Social Conflict, Growth And Factor Shares," Metroeconomica, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 62(2), pages 283-304, May.
    3. Voskoboynikov, Ilya B., 2012. "New measures of output, labour and capital in industries of the Russian economy," GGDC Research Memorandum GD-123, Groningen Growth and Development Centre, University of Groningen.
    4. de Meza, David & Lockwood, Ben, 2010. "Too much investment? A problem of endogenous outside options," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 69(2), pages 503-511, July.
    5. Sila, Urban, 2009. "Can family-support policies help explain differences in working hours across countries?," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 28684, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    6. Brecht Boone & Freddy Heylen, 2019. "Cross‐Country Differences in Unemployment: Fiscal Policy, Unions, and Household Preferences in General Equilibrium," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 121(3), pages 1270-1302, July.
    7. Auray, Stéphane & Danthine, Samuel, 2010. "Bargaining frictions, labor income taxation, and economic performance," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 54(6), pages 778-802, August.
    8. Campiglio, Emanuele, 2014. "The structural shift to green services: A two-sector growth model with public capital and open-access resources," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 148-161.
    9. Dale W. Jorgenson & Marcel P. Timmer, 2011. "Structural Change in Advanced Nations: A New Set of Stylised Facts," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 113(1), pages 1-29, March.
    10. Jean-Baptiste Michau, 2013. "Unemployment Insurance And Cultural Transmission: Theory And Application To European Unemployment," Journal of the European Economic Association, European Economic Association, vol. 11(6), pages 1320-1347, December.
    11. Tournemaine, Frederic & Tsoukis, Christopher, 2010. "Gain versus pain from status and ambition: Effects on growth and inequality," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 39(2), pages 286-294, April.
    12. Sébastien Bock, 2018. "Job Polarization and Unskilled Employment Losses in France," PSE Working Papers halshs-01513037, HAL.
    13. Kudoh, Noritaka & Sasaki, Masaru, 2011. "Employment and hours of work," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 55(2), pages 176-192, February.
    14. Kawata, Keisuke, 2015. "Work hour mismatches and on-the-job search," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 280-291.
    15. Langot, François & Pizzo, Alessandra, 2019. "Accounting for labor gaps," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 118(C), pages 312-347.
    16. Haroon Mumtaz & Francesco Zanetti, 2015. "Labor Market Dynamics: A Time-Varying Analysis," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 77(3), pages 319-338, June.
    17. Maciej Bukowski & Piotr Lewandowski & Iza Sobiech & Andrzej Zurawski & Jan Gaska & Aleksander Sniegocki, 2011. "Employment in Poland 2010. Integration and Globalization," Books and Reports published by IBS, Instytut Badan Strukturalnych, number zwp2010 edited by Maciej Bukowski, january.
    18. Rogerson, Richard & Shimer, Robert, 2011. "Search in Macroeconomic Models of the Labor Market," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 4, chapter 7, pages Pages: 61, Elsevier.
    19. repec:dgr:rugggd:gd-123 is not listed on IDEAS
    20. Rogerson, Richard & Wallenius, Johanna, 2009. "Micro and macro elasticities in a life cycle model with taxes," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 144(6), pages 2277-2292, November.
    21. Tiago Cavalcanti & Márcio Corrêa, 2014. "Cash Transfers to the Poor and the Labor Market: An Equilibrium Analysis," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 18(4), pages 741-762, November.
    22. Hall, Axel & Gylfi Zoega, 2019. "Welfare, employment, and hours of work," Economics Discussion Papers 2019-1, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
    23. Richard Rogerson, 2006. "Understanding Differences in Hours Worked," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 9(3), pages 365-409, July.
    24. Axel Hall & Gylfi Zoega, 2015. "Why do Europeans Work Less than Americans? Public Consumption and Welfare Benefits as a Cause of the North-Atlantic Divide," CESifo Working Paper Series 5264, CESifo.
    25. repec:dgr:rugggd:gd-115 is not listed on IDEAS

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Unemployment; hours of work; service employment; structural change; labor productivity taxation;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity
    • J21 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure
    • J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply
    • J64 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Unemployment: Models, Duration, Incidence, and Job Search
    • O14 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Industrialization; Manufacturing and Service Industries; Choice of Technology

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