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Are Suburban Firms More Likely to Discriminate Against African-Americans?

  • Raphael, Steven
  • Stoll, Michael A.

This paper presents a test of the hypothesis that employers in suburban locations are more likely to discriminate against African-Americans than employers located in central cities. Using a difference-in-difference framework, we compare central city-suburban differences in racial hiring outcomes for firms where a white person is in charge of hiring (white employers, for short) to similar geographic differences in outcomes for firms where a black person is in charge of hiring (black employer). We find that both suburban black and white employers hire fewer blacks than their central-city counterparts. Moreover, the suburban/central city hiring gap among black employers is as large as, or larger than, that of white employers. Suburban black employers, however, receive many more applications from blacks and hire more blacks than do white firms in either location.

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Paper provided by Department of Economics, UC San Diego in its series University of California at San Diego, Economics Working Paper Series with number qt9pq2t9hx.

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Date of creation: 01 Feb 1998
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:cdl:ucsdec:qt9pq2t9hx
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  1. Holzer, Harry J. & Reaser, Jess, 2000. "Black Applicants, Black Employees, and Urban Labor Market Policy," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(3), pages 365-387, November.
  2. Ihlanfeldt, Keith R & Sjoquist, David L, 1990. "Job Accessibility and Racial Differences in Youth Employment Rates," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(1), pages 267-76, March.
  3. Katherine M. O'Regan and John M. Quigley., 1996. "Spatial Effects upon Employment Outcomes: The Case of New Jersey Teenagers," Economics Working Papers 96-247, University of California at Berkeley.
  4. Daniel Immergluck, 1996. "What employers want: Job prospects for less-educated workers," The Review of Black Political Economy, Springer;National Economic Association, vol. 24(4), pages 135-143, June.
  5. Harry J. Holzer & Keith R. Ihlanfeldt, 1996. "Spatial factors and the employment of blacks at the firm level," New England Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, issue May, pages 65-86.
  6. Jonathan S. Leonard, 1984. "The Interaction of Residential Segregation and Employment Discrimination," NBER Working Papers 1274, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Michael A. Stoll, 1999. "Spatial mismatch, discrimination, and male youth employment in the Washington, DC area: Implications for residential mobility policies," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(1), pages 77-98.
  8. John F. Kain, 1968. "Housing Segregation, Negro Employment, and Metropolitan Decentralization," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 82(2), pages 175-197.
  9. Holzer Harry J. & Ihlanfeldt Keith R. & Sjoquist David L., 1994. "Work, Search, and Travel among White and Black Youth," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 320-345, May.
  10. Timothy Bates, 1994. "Utilization of minority employees in small business: A comparison of nonminority and black-owned urban enterprises," The Review of Black Political Economy, Springer;National Economic Association, vol. 23(1), pages 113-121, June.
  11. Keith Ihlanfeldt, 1992. "Job Accessibility and the Employment and School Enrollment of Teenagers," Books from Upjohn Press, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, number jaes, November.
  12. Marc Bendick & Charles Jackson & Victor Reinoso, 1994. "Measuring employment discrimination through controlled experiments," The Review of Black Political Economy, Springer;National Economic Association, vol. 23(1), pages 25-48, June.
  13. Ihlanfeldt, Keith R & Young, Madelyn V, 1996. "The Spatial Distribution of Black Employment between the Central City and the Suburbs," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 34(4), pages 693-707, October.
  14. Harry J. Holzer & Keith R. Ihlanfeldt, 1998. "Customer Discrimination and Employment Outcomes for Minority Workers," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 113(3), pages 835-867.
  15. Becker, Gary S., 1971. "The Economics of Discrimination," University of Chicago Press Economics Books, University of Chicago Press, edition 2, number 9780226041162, July.
  16. Steven Raphael, 1998. "Inter- and Intra-Ethnic Comparisons of the Central City-Suburban Youth Employment Differential: Evidence from the Oakland Metropolitan Area," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 51(3), pages 505-524, April.
  17. David T. Ellwood, 1986. "The Spatial Mismatch Hypothesis: Are There Teenage Jobs Missing in the Ghetto?," NBER Chapters, in: The Black Youth Employment Crisis, pages 147-190 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  18. William Frey & Reynolds Farley, 1996. "Latino, Asian, and black segregation in U.S. metropolitan areas: Are multiethnic metros different," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 33(1), pages 35-50, February.
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