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Public Transit and the Spatial Distribution of Minority Employment: Evidence from a Natural Experiment

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  • Holzer, Harry J.
  • Quigley, John M.
  • Raphael, Steven

Abstract

A recent expansion of the San Francisco Bay Area’s heavy rail system represents an exogenous change in the accessibility of inner-city minority communities to a concentrated suburban employment center. We evaluate this natural experiment by conducting a two-wave longitudinal survey of firms, with the first wave of inter- views conducted immediately before the opening of service, and the second wave approximately a year later. Within-firm changes in the propensity to hire minority workers for firms near the station were compared with those located farther away. Also estimated was the effect of employer distance to the new stations on changes in propensity to hire minorities. Results indicate a sizable increase in the hiring of Latinos near the new stations, but little evidence of an effect on black hiring rates.

Suggested Citation

  • Holzer, Harry J. & Quigley, John M. & Raphael, Steven, 2004. "Public Transit and the Spatial Distribution of Minority Employment: Evidence from a Natural Experiment," Berkeley Program on Housing and Urban Policy, Working Paper Series qt0f3725dm, Berkeley Program on Housing and Urban Policy.
  • Handle: RePEc:cdl:bphupl:qt0f3725dm
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    Cited by:

    1. Olof Åslund & John Östh & Yves Zenou, 2010. "How important is access to jobs? Old question--improved answer," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 10(3), pages 389-422, May.
    2. Weinberg, Bruce A., 2004. "Testing the spatial mismatch hypothesis using inter-city variations in industrial composition," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(5), pages 505-532, September.
    3. Jackson, C. Kirabo & Owens, Emily Greene, 2011. "One for the road: Public transportation, alcohol consumption, and intoxicated driving," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, pages 106-121.
    4. Gautier, Pieter A. & Zenou, Yves, 2010. "Car ownership and the labor market of ethnic minorities," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(3), pages 392-403, May.
    5. Shirlee Lichtman-Sadot, 2017. "Can Public Transportation Reduce Accidents? Evidence From The Introduction Of Late-Night Buses In Israeli Cities," Working Papers 1715, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Economics.
    6. repec:eee:trapol:v:60:y:2017:i:c:p:1-9 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Fredrik Andersson & John Haltiwanger & Mark Kutzbach & Henry Pollakowski & Daniel Weinberg, 2011. "Job Displacement And The Duration Of Joblessness: The Role Of Spatial Mismatch," Working Papers 11-30r, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau, revised Apr 2014.
    8. Gary King & Emmanuela Gakidou & Nirmala Ravishankar & Ryan T. Moore & Jason Lakin & Manett Vargas & Martha María Téllez-Rojo & Juan Eugenio Hernández Ávila & Mauricio Hernández Ávila & Héctor Hernánde, 2007. "A “politically robust” experimental design for public policy evaluation, with application to the Mexican Universal Health Insurance program," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 26(3), pages 479-506.
    9. Nathalie Georges & Yannick L’Horty & Florent Sari, 2015. "Comment réduire la fracture spatiale ? Une application en Île-de-France," Economie & Prévision, La Documentation Française, pages 17-37.
    10. Ana I. Moreno-Monroy, 2016. "Access to public transport and labor informality," IZA World of Labor, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), pages 274-274, July.
    11. Sylvie Fol & Gabriel Dupuy & Olivier Coutard, 2007. "Transport Policy and the Car Divide in the UK, the US and France: Beyond the Environmental Debate," International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 31(4), pages 802-818, December.
    12. Tito Boeri & Marta De Philippis & Eleonora Patacchini & Michele Pellizzari, 2011. "Immigration, Housing Discrimination and Employment," Working Papers 390, IGIER (Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research), Bocconi University.
    13. Laurent Gobillon & Harris Selod & Yves Zenou, 2007. "The Mechanisms of Spatial Mismatch," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, pages 2401-2427.
    14. repec:eee:deveco:v:130:y:2018:i:c:p:99-112 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Antonio Di Paolo & Anna Matas & Josep Lluís Raymond, 2014. "“Job Accessibility, Employment and Job-Education Mismatch in the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona”," IREA Working Papers 201419, University of Barcelona, Research Institute of Applied Economics, revised May 2014.
    16. Leah Platt Boustan, 2013. "Racial Residential Segregation in American Cities," NBER Working Papers 19045, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    17. Phillips, David C. & Sandler, Danielle, 2015. "Does public transit spread crime? Evidence from temporary rail station closures," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 13-26.
    18. Sari, Florent, 2015. "Public transit and labor market outcomes: Analysis of the connections in the French agglomeration of Bordeaux," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 231-251.
    19. Lee, Yong Suk, 2015. "School districting and the origins of residential land price inequality," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 1-17.
    20. Ana Isabel Moreno-Monroy & Frederico Ramos, 2015. "The impact of public transport expansions on informality: the case of the São Paulo Metropolitan Region," ERSA conference papers ersa15p1551, European Regional Science Association.
    21. Zhu, Pengyu & Liu, Cathy Yang & Painter, Gary, 2014. "Does residence in an ethnic community help immigrants in a recession?," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 112-127.
    22. Bruce A. Weinberg & Patricia B. Reagan & Jeffrey J. Yankow, 2004. "Do Neighborhoods Affect Hours Worked? Evidence from Longitudinal Data," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 22(4), pages 891-924, October.
    23. Phillips, David C., 2014. "Getting to work: Experimental evidence on job search and transportation costs," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 72-82.

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