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Within cities and suburbs: Racial residential concentration and the spatial distribution of employment opportunities across sub-metropolitan areas

Author

Listed:
  • Michael A. Stoll

    (School of Public Policy and Social Research, University of California, Los Angeles)

  • Harry J. Holzer

    (Department of Economics, Michigan State University)

  • Keith R. Ihlanfeldt

    (Department of Economics, Georgia State University)

Abstract

This article examines and compares the spatial distributions of new jobs and people across sub-metropolitan areas for Atlanta, Boston, Detroit, and Los Angeles. The jobs data come from the Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality and the data on people come from the U.S. Bureau of the Census. The results indicate that less-educated people, public assistance recipients, and especially poor females with children mostly reside in areas heavily populated by minorities where the availability of less-skilled jobs is quite low, while the availability of these jobs relative to less-educated people in suburban areas heavily populated by whites is high. Large fractions of the less-skilled jobs in these metropolitan areas are not accessible by public transit. Furthermore, there is significant variation within both central cities and suburbs in the ethnic composition of residents and in less-skilled job availability. The ability of various minority groups to gain employment in each area depends heavily on the ethnic composition of the particular area. © 2000 by the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management.

Suggested Citation

  • Michael A. Stoll & Harry J. Holzer & Keith R. Ihlanfeldt, 2000. "Within cities and suburbs: Racial residential concentration and the spatial distribution of employment opportunities across sub-metropolitan areas," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 19(2), pages 207-231.
  • Handle: RePEc:wly:jpamgt:v:19:y:2000:i:2:p:207-231 DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1520-6688(200021)19:2<207::AID-PAM3>3.0.CO;2-H
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Price, Richard & Mills, Edwin, 1985. "Race and residence in earnings determination," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 1-18, January.
    2. Katherine M. O'Regan & John M. Quigley, 1996. "Spatial effects upon employment outcomes: the case of New Jersey teenagers," New England Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, pages 41-64.
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    7. Evelyn Blumenberg & Paul Ong, 1998. "Job accessibility and welfare usage: Evidence from Los Angeles," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 17(4), pages 639-657.
    8. H. J. Holzer & S. Danziger, "undated". "Are Jobs Available for Disadvantaged Workers in Urban Areas?," Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers 1157-98, University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty.
    9. Michael A. Stoll, 1999. "Spatial mismatch, discrimination, and male youth employment in the Washington, DC area: Implications for residential mobility policies," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(1), pages 77-98.
    10. Daniel Immergluck, 1996. "What employers want: Job prospects for less-educated workers," The Review of Black Political Economy, Springer;National Economic Association, vol. 24(4), pages 135-143, June.
    11. Harry J. Holzer & Keith R. Ihlanfeldt, 1996. "Spatial factors and the employment of blacks at the firm level," New England Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, issue May, pages 65-86.
    12. Holzer, Harry J. & Reaser, Jess, 2000. "Black Applicants, Black Employees, and Urban Labor Market Policy," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, pages 365-387.
    13. Michael A. Stoll, 1998. "When Jobs Move, Do Black and Latino Men Lose? The Effect of Growth in Job Decentralisation on Young Men's Jobless Incidence and Duration," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 35(12), pages 2221-2239, December.
    14. David T. Ellwood, 1986. "The Spatial Mismatch Hypothesis: Are There Teenage Jobs Missing in the Ghetto?," NBER Chapters,in: The Black Youth Employment Crisis, pages 147-190 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Steven Raphael & Michael A. Stoll, 2000. "Can Boosting Minority Car-Ownership Rates Narrow Inter-Racial Employment Gaps," JCPR Working Papers 200, Northwestern University/University of Chicago Joint Center for Poverty Research.
    2. Jacquemet, Nicolas & Yannelis, Constantine, 2012. "Indiscriminate discrimination: A correspondence test for ethnic homophily in the Chicago labor market," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(6), pages 824-832.
    3. Raphael, Steven & Rice, Lorien, 2002. "Car ownership, employment, and earnings," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, pages 109-130.
    4. Gary Painter & Cathy Yang Liu & Duan Zhuang, 2007. "Immigrants and the Spatial Mismatch Hypothesis: Employment Outcomes among Immigrant Youth in Los Angeles," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 44(13), pages 2627-2649, December.
    5. Raphael, Steven & Stoll, Michael, 2000. "Can Boosting Minority Car-Ownership Rates Narrow Inter-Racial Employment Gaps?," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt4fq193gk, University of California Transportation Center.
    6. Laurent Gobillon & Harris Selod & Yves Zenou, 2007. "The Mechanisms of Spatial Mismatch," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 44(12), pages 2401-2427, November.
    7. Strand, Alexander & Fisher, Robin C., 2003. "Local Labor Markets and Child Poverty," The Review of Regional Studies, Southern Regional Science Association, vol. 33(3), pages 296-312.
    8. Michael A. Stoll & Steven Raphael & Harry J. Holzer, 2001. "Why Are Black Employers More Likely to Hire African Americans than White Employers?," JCPR Working Papers 228, Northwestern University/University of Chicago Joint Center for Poverty Research.
    9. Harry J. Holzer & John M. Quigley & Steven Raphael, 2003. "Public transit and the spatial distribution of minority employment: Evidence from a natural experiment," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(3), pages 415-441.
    10. Harry J. Holzer & Steven Raphael & Michael A. Stoll, 2001. "Will Employers Hire Ex-Offenders? Employer Preferences, Background Checks, and Their Determinants," JCPR Working Papers 238, Northwestern University/University of Chicago Joint Center for Poverty Research.
    11. Johnson, Rucker C., 2006. "Landing a job in urban space: The extent and effects of spatial mismatch," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(3), pages 331-372, May.
    12. Crockett, David & Downey, Hilary & Fırat, A. Fuat & Ozanne, Julie L. & Pettigrew, Simone, 2013. "Conceptualizing a transformative research agenda," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 66(8), pages 1171-1178.
    13. Laurent Gobillon & Harris Selod & Yves Zenou, 2002. "Spatial Mismatch : From the Hypothesis of the Theories," Working Papers 2002-57, Center for Research in Economics and Statistics.
    14. repec:hal:journl:hal-00745109 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Justin Marion, 2009. "Firm racial segregation and affirmative action in the highway construction industry," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 33(4), pages 441-453, December.
    16. Quigley, John M. & Raphael, Steven, 2008. "Neighborhoods, Economic Self-Sufficiency, and the MTO Program," Berkeley Program on Housing and Urban Policy, Working Paper Series qt1nd2t0pw, Berkeley Program on Housing and Urban Policy.
    17. Ong, Paul M. & Miller, Douglas, 2003. "Spatial and Transportation Mismatch in Los Angeles," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt2664v2n7, University of California Transportation Center.
    18. Harry J. Holzer & Michael A. Stoll, 2003. "Employer Demand for Welfare Recipients by Race," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 21(1), pages 210-241, January.
    19. repec:hal:cesptp:hal-00745109 is not listed on IDEAS
    20. Ong, Paul & Miller, Douglas, 2003. "Spatial and Transportation Mismatch in Los Angeles," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt1m84h1b7, University of California Transportation Center.

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