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Exploring the connections among job accessibility, employment, income, and auto ownership using structural equation modeling

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  • Gao, Shengyi
  • Mokhtarian, Patricia L
  • Johnston, Robert A.

Abstract

Using structural equation modeling, this study empirically examines the connections between job accessibility, workers per capita, income per capita, and autos per capita at the aggregate level with year 2000 census tract data in Sacramento County, CA. Under the specification of the conceptual model, the model implied covariance matrix exhibits a reasonably good fit to the observed covariance matrix. The direct and total effects are largely consistent with theory and/or with empirical observations across a variety of geographic contexts. It is demonstrated that structural equation modeling is a powerful tool for capturing the endogeneity among job accessibility, employment, income, and auto ownership.

Suggested Citation

  • Gao, Shengyi & Mokhtarian, Patricia L & Johnston, Robert A., 2007. "Exploring the connections among job accessibility, employment, income, and auto ownership using structural equation modeling," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt30v177dx, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
  • Handle: RePEc:cdl:itsdav:qt30v177dx
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    2. Fransen, Koos & Boussauw, Kobe & Deruyter, Greta & De Maeyer, Philippe, 2019. "The relationship between transport disadvantage and employability: Predicting long-term unemployment based on job seekers’ access to suitable job openings in Flanders, Belgium," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 125(C), pages 268-279.
    3. Jahanshahi, Kaveh & Jin, Ying & Williams, Ian, 2015. "Direct and indirect influences on employed adults’ travel in the UK: New insights from the National Travel Survey data 2002–2010," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 80(C), pages 288-306.
    4. James C. Ryan & Syed A. A. Tipu, 2016. "An Empirical Alternative to Sidani and Thornberry’s (2009) ‘Current Arab Work Ethic’: Examining the Multidimensional Work Ethic Profile in an Arab Context," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 135(1), pages 177-198, April.
    5. Young-Chool Choi & Ji-Hyun Jang, 2016. "Relationships Among Social Policy Factors, National Competitiveness, and Happiness," Applied Research in Quality of Life, Springer;International Society for Quality-of-Life Studies, vol. 11(4), pages 1189-1205, December.
    6. Van Acker, Veronique & Witlox, Frank, 2010. "Car ownership as a mediating variable in car travel behaviour research using a structural equation modelling approach to identify its dual relationship," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 65-74.
    7. Lingqian Hu, 2017. "Job accessibility and employment outcomes: which income groups benefit the most?," Transportation, Springer, vol. 44(6), pages 1421-1443, November.
    8. Matas, Anna & Raymond, José-Luis & Roig, José-Luis, 2009. "Car ownership and access to jobs in Spain," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 43(6), pages 607-617, July.
    9. Veronique Acker & Frank Witlox, 2011. "Commuting trips within tours: how is commuting related to land use?," Transportation, Springer, vol. 38(3), pages 465-486, May.
    10. Sabreena Anowar & Naveen Eluru & Luis F. Miranda-Moreno, 2014. "Alternative Modeling Approaches Used for Examining Automobile Ownership: A Comprehensive Review," Transport Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(4), pages 441-473, July.
    11. Juan Laborda & María José Moral, 2020. "Automotive Aftermarket Forecast in a Changing World: The Stakeholders’ Perceptions Boost!," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 12(18), pages 1-22, September.
    12. Yan, Xiang & Bejleri, Ilir & Zhai, Liang, 2022. "A spatiotemporal analysis of transit accessibility to low-wage jobs in Miami-Dade County," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 98(C).
    13. Kaveh Jahanshahi & Ying Jin, 2021. "Identification and mapping of spatial variations in travel choices through combining structural equation modelling and latent class analysis: findings for Great Britain," Transportation, Springer, vol. 48(3), pages 1329-1359, June.
    14. Merlin, Louis A. & Hu, Lingqian, 2017. "Does competition matter in measures of job accessibility? Explaining employment in Los Angeles," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 77-88.
    15. Kim, Sung Hoo & Mokhtarian, Patricia L., 2018. "Taste heterogeneity as an alternative form of endogeneity bias: Investigating the attitude-moderated effects of built environment and socio-demographics on vehicle ownership using latent class modelin," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 116(C), pages 130-150.
    16. Jen-Jia Lin & Chi-Hau Chen & Tsung-Yu Hsieh, 2016. "Job accessibility and ethnic minority employment in urban and rural areas in Taiwan," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 95(2), pages 363-382, June.

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