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Spatial and Transportation Mismatch in Los Angeles

Listed author(s):
  • Ong, Paul M.
  • Miller, Douglas
Registered author(s):

    One of the most salient characteristics of poor urban neighborhoods is poor labor-market outcomes. Since its conceptualization in the late 1960's, the spatial mismatch hypothesis (SMH) has been cited to explain the employment problems encountered by residents of disadvantaged urban communities. Scholars have noted an increasing geographic separation between job opportunities and low-income minorities, many of whom have remained trapped in inner-city ghettos and barrios while jobs have decentralized into the suburbs. Physical distance, then, has been recognized as an employment barrier. Spatial mismatch has also been tied to the development of underclass neighborhoods - those where at least two-fifths of the residents fall below the poverty line. These communities have experienced an exodus of the middle-class, which in turn has weakened community institutions and social networks, created a paucity of positive role models, and devastated neighborhood economies. Empirical studies have found that spatial mismatch adversely impacts labor-market outcomes for African Americans in older cities, but the hypothesis may not be relevant for all disadvantaged urban neighborhoods.

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    File URL: http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/2664v2n7.pdf;origin=repeccitec
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    Paper provided by University of California Transportation Center in its series University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers with number qt2664v2n7.

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    Date of creation: 23 May 2003
    Handle: RePEc:cdl:uctcwp:qt2664v2n7
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    1. Evelyn Blumenberg & Paul Ong, 1998. "Job accessibility and welfare usage: Evidence from Los Angeles," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 17(4), pages 639-657.
    2. Steven Raphael & Michael A. Stoll, 2000. "Can Boosting Minority Car-Ownership Rates Narrow Inter-Racial Employment Gaps," JCPR Working Papers 200, Northwestern University/University of Chicago Joint Center for Poverty Research.
    3. Raphael, Steven & Rice, Lorien, 2002. "Car ownership, employment, and earnings," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(1), pages 109-130, July.
    4. Katherine M. O'Regan & John M. Quigley, 1996. "Spatial effects upon employment outcomes: the case of New Jersey teenagers," New England Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, issue May, pages 41-64.
    5. Michael A. Stoll & Harry J. Holzer & Keith R. Ihlanfeldt, 2000. "Within cities and suburbs: Racial residential concentration and the spatial distribution of employment opportunities across sub-metropolitan areas," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 19(2), pages 207-231.
    6. Shroder, Mark, 2002. "Does housing assistance perversely affect self-sufficiency? A review essay," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(4), pages 381-417, December.
    7. Harry J. Holzer, 1991. "The Spatial Mismatch Hypothesis: What Has the Evidence Shown?," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 28(1), pages 105-122, February.
    8. Paul M. Ong, 2002. "Car ownership and welfare-to-work," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 21(2), pages 239-252.
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