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Mismatch, Transport Mode and Search Decisions in England

  • Patacchini, Eleonora
  • Zenou, Yves

We develop a theoretical model in which whites mainly use private vehicles to commute whereas non-whites use public transportation. We show that, for whites and non-whites, higher (time) distance-to-jobs leads to lower search effort. Because of different transport modes, we also show that, at exactly the same (time) distance-to-jobs, white unemployed workers search more intensively than non-whites because it less costly for them to gather information about jobs. We then test this model using English sub-regional data. We find that, for each race, living in areas where distance-to-jobs is higher means the unemployed search less than in areas with better job access. We also find that having access to a car increases search intensity for both whites and non-whites. Finally, closing the racial gap in car access and distance-to-jobs would considerably narrow the difference in search intensities between whites and non-whites.

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Paper provided by C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers in its series CEPR Discussion Papers with number 3968.

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Date of creation: Jul 2003
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Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:3968
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  1. Steven Raphael & Lorien Rice, 2000. "Car Ownership, Employment, and Earnings," JCPR Working Papers 179, Northwestern University/University of Chicago Joint Center for Poverty Research.
  2. Wasmer, Etienne & Zenou, Yves, 2002. "Does City Structure Affect Job Search and Welfare?," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(3), pages 515-541, May.
  3. Chirinko, Robert S, 1982. "An Empirical Investigation of the Returns to Job Search," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(3), pages 498-501, June.
  4. Rogers, Cynthia L., 1997. "Job Search and Unemployment Duration: Implications for the Spatial Mismatch Hypothesis," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 109-132, July.
  5. Holzer Harry J. & Ihlanfeldt Keith R. & Sjoquist David L., 1994. "Work, Search, and Travel among White and Black Youth," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 320-345, May.
  6. Wasmer, Etienne & Zenou, Yves, 2005. "Equilibrium Search Unemployment with Explicit Spatial Frictions," IZA Discussion Papers 1465, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  7. Gobillon, Laurent & Selod, Harris & Zenou, Yves, 2003. "Spatial Mismatch: From the Hypothesis to the Theories," CEPR Discussion Papers 3740, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  8. Keith Ihlanfeldt, 1992. "Job Accessibility and the Employment and School Enrollment of Teenagers," Books from Upjohn Press, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, number jaes, November.
  9. Seater, John J, 1979. "Job Search and Vacancy Contacts," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 69(3), pages 411-19, June.
  10. LeRoy, Stephen F. & Sonstelie, Jon, 1983. "Paradise lost and regained: Transportation innovation, income, and residential location," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 67-89, January.
  11. Zax, Jeffrey S & Kain, John F, 1996. "Moving to the Suburbs: Do Relocating Companies Leave Their Black Employees Behind?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 14(3), pages 472-504, July.
  12. Stoll, Michael A., 1999. "Spatial Job Search, Spatial Mismatch, and the Employment and Wages of Racial and Ethnic Groups in Los Angeles," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 129-155, July.
  13. Smith, Tony E. & Zenou, Yves, 2003. "Spatial Mismatch, Search Effort and Urban Spatial Structure," IZA Discussion Papers 692, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  14. Barron, John M & Gilley, Otis W, 1981. "Job Search and Vacancy Contacts: Note," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(4), pages 747-52, September.
  15. Raphael, Steven & Stoll, Michael, 2001. "Can Boosting Minority Car-Ownership Rates Narrow Inter-Racial Employment Gaps?," Berkeley Program on Housing and Urban Policy, Working Paper Series qt4k4519pw, Berkeley Program on Housing and Urban Policy.
  16. Ronald Oaxaca, 1971. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," Working Papers 396, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
  17. Sasaki, Komei, 1990. "Income class, modal choice, and urban spatial structure," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 322-343, May.
  18. Ihlanfeldt, Keith R & Sjoquist, David L, 1990. "Job Accessibility and Racial Differences in Youth Employment Rates," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(1), pages 267-76, March.
  19. Thomas, Jonathan M., 1998. "Ethnic Variation in Commuting Propensity and Unemployment Spells: Some U.K. Evidence," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(3), pages 385-400, May.
  20. Weinberg, Bruce A., 2000. "Black Residential Centralization and the Spatial Mismatch Hypothesis," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 110-134, July.
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