Spacial Isolation and Welfare Recipients: What Do We Know?
Most inferences about the spatial isolation of welfare recipients are based upon residence patterns observed among the poor. This paper provides the first systematic examination of the spatial and transport conditions facing female-headed families on public assistance, comparing them with conditions facing the poor and the non poor. The analysis clearly documents wide differences in labor force attachment, job and residence patterns, commute modes and times by race, between the welfare and poverty populations. It also reveals substantial differences in the residence and workplace locations and commute patterns of public assistance households and large differences in access to automobiles. Worktrip mode varies enormously by auto access, and the incidence of very long journeys to work is much higher for those on public assistance. In contrast, a surprisingly large fraction of female welfare recipients walk to work. These data provide a national benchmark for current welfare reform experiences.
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- Harry J. Holzer, 1991. "The Spatial Mismatch Hypothesis: What Has the Evidence Shown?," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 28(1), pages 105-122, February.
- Laura Leete & Neil Bania, 1999. "The impact of welfare reform on local labor markets," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(1), pages 50-76.
- H. J. Holzer & K. R. Ihlanfeldt, .
"Spatial factors and the employment of blacks at the firm level,"
Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers
1086-96, University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty.
- Harry J. Holzer & Keith R. Ihlanfeldt, 1996. "Spatial factors and the employment of blacks at the firm level," New England Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, issue May, pages 65-86.
- Raphael, Steven & Rice, Lorien, 2002.
"Car ownership, employment, and earnings,"
Journal of Urban Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 52(1), pages 109-130, July.
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