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Approval of Equal Rights and Gender - Differences in Well-Being

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  • Lalive, Rafael

    () (University of Basel)

  • Stutzer, Alois

    () (University of Basel)

Abstract

Women earn less than men but are not less satisfied with life. This paper NEWLINE explores whether norms regarding the appropriate pay for women compared to men NEWLINE may explain these findings. In order to capture the spatial variation in such norms, we NEWLINE take community level information on citizens’ approval of an equal rights amendment NEWLINE to the Swiss constitution as a proxy for the norm that “women and men shall have the NEWLINE right to equal pay for work of equal value”. We find that the gender wage gap is NEWLINE smaller where a larger fraction of the citizenry has voted in favor of equal pay. We NEWLINE also find that employed women are less (not more) satisfied with life in liberal NEWLINE communities where the gender wage gap is smaller. These findings are consistent NEWLINE with the idea that norms regarding the appropriate relative pay of women compared NEWLINE to men are shaping gender differences in well-being.

Suggested Citation

  • Lalive, Rafael & Stutzer, Alois, 2007. "Approval of Equal Rights and Gender - Differences in Well-Being," Working papers 2007/06, Faculty of Business and Economics - University of Basel.
  • Handle: RePEc:bsl:wpaper:2007/06
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    Cited by:

    1. Uwe Jirjahn, 2011. "Gender, Worker Representation and the Profitability of Firms in Germany," European Journal of Comparative Economics, Cattaneo University (LIUC), vol. 8(2), pages 281-298, December.
    2. Bruno S. Frey & Simon Luechinger & Alois Stutzer, 2007. "Calculating Tragedy: Assessing The Costs Of Terrorism," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(1), pages 1-24, February.
    3. Bruno Frey & Alois Stutzer, 2005. "Happiness Research: State and Prospects," Review of Social Economy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 63(2), pages 207-228.
    4. Andreas Kuhn & Stefan C. Wolter, 2018. "The Strength of Gender Norms and Gender-Stereotypical Occupational Aspirations Among Adolescents," Economics of Education Working Paper Series 0151, University of Zurich, Department of Business Administration (IBW).
    5. Boris Hirsch & Marion König & Joachim Möller, 2013. "Is There a Gap in the Gap? Regional Differences in the Gender Pay Gap," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 60(4), pages 412-439, September.
    6. Sutirtha Bandyopadhyay, 0. "Gendered Well-Being: Cross-Sectional Evidence from Poor Urban Households in India," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 0, pages 1-28.
    7. Djurdjevic, Dragana & Radyakin, Sergiy, 2005. "Decomposition of the Gender Wage Gap Using Matching: an Application for Switzerland," Publications of Darmstadt Technical University, Institute for Business Studies (BWL) 36794, Darmstadt Technical University, Department of Business Administration, Economics and Law, Institute for Business Studies (BWL).
    8. José Giménez-Nadal & Raquel Ortega, 2015. "Time Dedicated to Family by University Students: Differences by Academic Area in a Case Study," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 36(1), pages 132-142, March.
    9. Sutirtha Bandyopadhyay, 2020. "Gendered Well-Being: Cross-Sectional Evidence from Poor Urban Households in India," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 151(1), pages 281-308, August.
    10. Bruno S. Frey & Simon Luechinger & Alois Stutzer, 2007. "Calculating Tragedy: Assessing The Costs Of Terrorism," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(1), pages 1-24, February.
    11. Colin P. Green & John S. Heywood & Parvinder Kler & Gareth Leeves, 2018. "Paradox Lost: The Disappearing Female Job Satisfaction Premium," British Journal of Industrial Relations, London School of Economics, vol. 56(3), pages 484-502, September.
    12. Dragana Djurdjevic & Sergiy Radyakin, 2007. "Decomposition of the Gender Wage Gap Using Matching: An Application for Switzerland," Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics (SJES), Swiss Society of Economics and Statistics (SSES), vol. 143(IV), pages 365-396, December.
    13. Bruno S. Frey & Alois Stutzer, 2009. "Should National Happiness be Maximized?," Chapters, in: Amitava Krishna Dutt & Benjamin Radcliff (ed.), Happiness, Economics and Politics, chapter 14, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    14. Stefan Boes & Rainer Winkelmann, 2010. "The Effect of Income on General Life Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 95(1), pages 111-128, January.
    15. Maria Smith, 2020. "‘We’re Worth What We Are Paid’: Unravelling the ‘Paradox of the Contented Female Worker’," Sociological Research Online, , vol. 25(3), pages 317-332, September.
    16. Jacqueline Zweig, 2015. "Are Women Happier than Men? Evidence from the Gallup World Poll," Journal of Happiness Studies, Springer, vol. 16(2), pages 515-541, April.
    17. Janssen, Simon & Tuor Sartore, Simone N. & Backes-Gellner, Uschi, 2014. "Social Attitudes on Gender Equality and Firms' Discriminatory Pay-Setting," IZA Discussion Papers 7959, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    18. Combet, Benita & Oesch, Daniel, 2019. "The Gender Wage Gap Opens Long before Motherhood. Panel Evidence on Early Careers in Switzerland," SocArXiv sazxj, Center for Open Science.
    19. Keith A. Bender & Kristen Roche, 2016. "Self-employment and the paradox of the contented female worker," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 47(2), pages 421-435, August.
    20. Hilke Brockmann & Anne-Maren Koch & Adele Diederich & Christofer Edling, 2018. "Why Managerial Women are Less Happy Than Managerial Men," Journal of Happiness Studies, Springer, vol. 19(3), pages 755-779, March.
    21. Michela Ponzo, 2011. "Occupational Status and Individual Subjective Well-Being in Italy," QA - Rivista dell'Associazione Rossi-Doria, Associazione Rossi Doria, issue 3, September.
    22. Andreas Kuhn & Juerg Schweri & Stefan C. Wolter, 2019. "Local Norms Describing the Role of the State and the Private Provision of Training," Economics of Education Working Paper Series 0157, University of Zurich, Department of Business Administration (IBW).
    23. Anja Roth & Michaela Slotwinski, 2018. "Gender Norms and Income Misreporting within Households," CESifo Working Paper Series 7298, CESifo.
    24. Rita Petõ & Reizer Balázs, 2021. "Gender Differences in the Skill Content of Jobs," CERS-IE WORKING PAPERS 2102, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    equal rights; gender discrimination; gender wage gap; social norms; subjective well-being;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • I31 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - General Welfare, Well-Being
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • J70 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - General
    • Z13 - Other Special Topics - - Cultural Economics - - - Economic Sociology; Economic Anthropology; Language; Social and Economic Stratification

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