IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/bca/bocawp/19-49.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

On the Evolution of Multiple Jobholding in Canada

Author

Listed:
  • Olena Kostyshyna
  • Etienne Lalé

Abstract

The number of workers who hold more than one job (a.k.a. multiple jobholders) has increased recently in Canada. While this seems to echo the view that non-standard work arrangements are becoming pervasive, the increase has in fact been trivial compared with the long-run rise of multiple jobholding that has occurred since the mid-1970s. In this paper, we document this historical evolution and provide a comprehensive account of its underlying dynamics. To this end, we use restricted-access panel micro-data from the Canadian Labour Force Survey to construct transition probabilities into and out of multiple jobholding. We analyze these data through the lens of a trend decomposition that separates out the role of labor market inflows and outflows. The picture that emerges from our analysis is one of continued increases in the propensity of workers to take on second jobs. We argue that changes in technology and in preferences could both be responsible for this evolution.

Suggested Citation

  • Olena Kostyshyna & Etienne Lalé, 2019. "On the Evolution of Multiple Jobholding in Canada," Staff Working Papers 19-49, Bank of Canada.
  • Handle: RePEc:bca:bocawp:19-49
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.bankofcanada.ca/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/swp2019-49.pdf
    File Function: Full text
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Elsby, Michael W.L. & Hobijn, Bart & Şahin, Ayşegül, 2015. "On the importance of the participation margin for labor market fluctuations," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 64-82.
    2. Valerie A. Ramey & Neville Francis, 2009. "A Century of Work and Leisure," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 1(2), pages 189-224, July.
    3. Alexandre Mas & Amanda Pallais, 2017. "Valuing Alternative Work Arrangements," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 107(12), pages 3722-3759, December.
    4. Daniel S. Hamermesh & Elena Stancanelli, 2015. "Long Workweeks and Strange Hours," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 68(5), pages 1007-1018, October.
    5. Katharine Abraham & John Haltiwanger & Kristin Sandusky & James Spletzer, 2017. "Measuring the Gig Economy: Current Knowledge and Open Issues," NBER Chapters, in: Measuring and Accounting for Innovation in the Twenty-First Century, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Pedro Portugal & Olivier Blanchard, 2001. "What Hides Behind an Unemployment Rate: Comparing Portuguese and U.S. Labor Markets," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(1), pages 187-207, March.
    7. Hyatt, Henry R. & Spletzer, James R., 2017. "The recent decline of single quarter jobs," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 166-176.
    8. Smith Conway, Karen & Kimmel, Jean, 1998. "Male labor supply estimates and the decision to moonlight," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 135-166, June.
    9. Hirsch, Barry T. & Winters, John V., 2016. "Rotation group bias in measures of multiple job holding," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 147(C), pages 160-163.
    10. Barry T. Hirsch & Muhammad M. Husain & John V. Winters, 2016. "Multiple job holding, local labor markets, and the business cycle," IZA Journal of Labor Economics, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 5(1), pages 1-29, December.
    11. Mark Aguiar & Erik Hurst, 2007. "Measuring Trends in Leisure: The Allocation of Time Over Five Decades," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 122(3), pages 969-1006.
    12. Daniel Borowczyk-Martins & Etienne Lalé, 2019. "Employment Adjustment and Part-Time Work: Lessons from the United States and the United Kingdom," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 11(1), pages 389-435, January.
    13. Barry T. Hirsch & Muhammad M. Husain & John V. Winters, 2017. "The Puzzling Pattern of Multiple Job Holding across U.S. Labor Markets," Southern Economic Journal, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 84(1), pages 26-51, July.
    14. Lalé, Etienne, 2016. "The Evolution of Multiple Jobholding in the U.S. Labor Market: The Complete Picture of Gross Worker Flows," IZA Discussion Papers 10355, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    15. Andrew Heisz, 2005. "The evolution of job stability in Canada: trends and comparisons with U.S. results," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 38(1), pages 105-127, February.
    16. Hirsch, Barry & Husain, Muhammad M. & Winters, John V., 2016. "The Puzzling Fixity of Multiple Job Holding across Regions and Labor Markets," IZA Discussion Papers 9631, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    17. Shigeru Fujita & Garey Ramey, 2009. "The Cyclicality Of Separation And Job Finding Rates," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 50(2), pages 415-430, May.
    18. Krishnan, Pramila, 1990. "The Economics of Moonlighting: A Double Self-Selection Model: Errata," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 72(4), pages 712-712, November.
    19. Olena Kostyshyna & Etienne Lalé, 2019. "On the Evolution of Multiple Jobholding in Canada," Staff Working Papers 19-49, Bank of Canada.
    20. Krishnan, Pramila, 1990. "The Economics of Moonlighting: A Double Self-Selection Model," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 72(2), pages 361-367, May.
    21. Catalina Amuedo‐Dorantes & Jean Kimmel, 2009. "Moonlighting Over The Business Cycle," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 47(4), pages 754-765, October.
    22. Jaroslava Hlouskova & Panagiotis Tsigaris & Anetta Caplanova & Rudolf Sivak, 2017. "A behavioral portfolio approach to multiple job holdings," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 15(2), pages 669-689, June.
    23. Jean Kimmel & Lisa M. Powell, 1999. "Moonlighting Trends and Related Policy Issues in Canada and the United States," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 25(2), pages 207-231, June.
    24. Robert Shimer, 2012. "Reassessing the Ins and Outs of Unemployment," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 15(2), pages 127-148, April.
    25. Andrew Heisz, 2005. "The evolution of job stability in Canada: trends and comparisons with U.S. results," Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 38(1), pages 105-127, February.
    26. Konstantinos Pouliakas, 2017. "Multiple job-holding: Career pathway or dire straits?," IZA World of Labor, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA), pages 356-356, May.
    27. Champagne, Julien & Kurmann, André, 2013. "The great increase in relative wage volatility in the United States," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(2), pages 166-183.
    28. Dany Brouillette & James Ketcheson & Olena Kostyshyna & Jonathan Lachaine, 2017. "Wage Growth in Canada and the United States: Factors Behind Recent Weakness," Staff Analytical Notes 17-8, Bank of Canada.
    29. Shishko, Robert & Rostker, Bernard, 1976. "The Economics of Multiple Job Holding," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 66(3), pages 298-308, June.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Olena Kostyshyna & Etienne Lalé, 2019. "On the Evolution of Multiple Jobholding in Canada," Staff Working Papers 19-49, Bank of Canada.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Lalé, Etienne, 2019. "Search and Multiple Jobholding," IZA Discussion Papers 12294, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    2. Lalé, Etienne, 2016. "The Evolution of Multiple Jobholding in the U.S. Labor Market: The Complete Picture of Gross Worker Flows," IZA Discussion Papers 10355, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    3. Barry T. Hirsch & Muhammad M. Husain & John V. Winters, 2016. "Multiple job holding, local labor markets, and the business cycle," IZA Journal of Labor Economics, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 5(1), pages 1-29, December.
    4. Borowczyk-Martins, Daniel & Lalé, Etienne, 2020. "The ins and outs of involuntary part-time employment," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(C).
    5. Hirsch, Barry & Husain, Muhammad M. & Winters, John V., 2016. "The Puzzling Fixity of Multiple Job Holding across Regions and Labor Markets," IZA Discussion Papers 9631, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    6. Hlouskova, Jaroslava & Tsigaris, Panagiotis, 2020. "A behavioral economic approach to multiple job holdings with leisure," IHS Working Paper Series 23, Institute for Advanced Studies.
    7. Rogerson, Richard & Shimer, Robert, 2011. "Search in Macroeconomic Models of the Labor Market," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 4, chapter 7, pages Pages: 61, Elsevier.
    8. Bailey, Keith A. & Spletzer, James R., 2020. "A New Measure of Multiple Jobholding in the U.S. Economy," IZA Discussion Papers 13693, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    9. Gregory Gilpin, 2018. "Policy-induced School Calendar Changes and Teacher Moonlighting," CAEPR Working Papers 2018-009, Center for Applied Economics and Policy Research, Department of Economics, Indiana University Bloomington.
    10. Chung Choe & Ronald L. Oaxaca & Francesco Renna, 2018. "Constrained vs unconstrained labor supply: the economics of dual job holding," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 31(4), pages 1279-1319, October.
    11. Mark Partridge, 2002. "Moonlighting in a High Growth Economy: Evidence from U.S. State‐Level Data," Growth and Change, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 33(4), pages 424-452, September.
    12. Michele Campolieti, 2011. "The ins and outs of unemployment in Canada, 1976–2008," Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 44(4), pages 1331-1349, November.
    13. Alison Preston & Robert E. Wright, 2020. "Exploring the gender difference in multiple job holding," Industrial Relations Journal, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(4), pages 301-328, July.
    14. Regis Barnichon & Andrew Figura, 2016. "Declining Desire to Work and Downward Trends in Unemployment and Participation," NBER Macroeconomics Annual, University of Chicago Press, vol. 30(1), pages 449-494.
    15. Daniel Borowczyk-Martins & Etienne Lalé, 2016. "The Rise of Part-time Employment," Sciences Po publications 2016-04, Sciences Po.
    16. Sengul, Gonul & Tasci, Murat, 2020. "Unemployment flows, participation, and the natural rate of unemployment: Evidence from turkey," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 64(C).
    17. Portugal, Pedro & Rua, António, 2018. "Zooming the Ins and Outs of the U.S. Unemployment with a Wavelet Lens," IZA Discussion Papers 11559, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    18. Fontaine, Idriss & Gálvez-Iniesta, Ismael & Gomes, Pedro & Vila-Martin, Diego, 2020. "Labour market flows: Accounting for the public sector," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(C).
    19. Hie Joo Ahn & James D. Hamilton, 2019. "Measuring Labor-Force Participation and the Incidence and Duration of Unemployment," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2019-035, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    20. Smith Conway, Karen & Kimmel, Jean, 1998. "Male labor supply estimates and the decision to moonlight," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 135-166, June.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Econometric and statistical methods; Labour markets;

    JEL classification:

    • E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity
    • J21 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure
    • J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply
    • J60 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - General

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bca:bocawp:19-49. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/bocgvca.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.