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Demand for Differentiated Milk Products: Implications for Price Competition

  • Lopez, Elena
  • Lopez, Rigoberto

This article uses a discrete choice, random coefficients logit model for analyzing consumer behavior and retail price competition in the Boston fluid milk market. The problems of product dimensionality and consumer heterogeneity implied by imperfect substitution in markets with differentiated products were solved by applying the model of Berry, Levinhson and Pakes (1995). Empirical results show that private label milks have the highest markups in spite of lower prices, which may explain their rapid expansion, while low-fat and specialty milks such as organic and lactose-free are preferred by high income groups with no children.

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File URL: http://purl.umn.edu/149929
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Paper provided by University of Connecticut, Food Marketing Policy Center in its series Research Reports with number 149929.

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Date of creation: Apr 2008
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Handle: RePEc:ags:uconnr:149929
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  1. Daniel A. Lass, 2005. "Asymmetric response of retail milk prices in the northeast revisited," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 21(4), pages 493-508.
  2. Chidmi, Benaissa & Lopez, Rigoberto A. & Cotterill, Ronald W., 2004. "Retail Oligopoly Power, Dairy Compact, And Boston Milk Prices," Research Reports 25212, University of Connecticut, Food Marketing Policy Center.
  3. Ronald W. Cotterill & Pierre O. Samson, 2002. "Estimating a Brand-Level Demand System for American Cheese Products to Evaluate Unilateral and Coordinated Market Power Strategies," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 84(3), pages 817-823.
  4. Lass, Daniel A., 2005. "Asymmetric Response of Retail Milk Prices in the Northeast Revisited," Research Reports 149026, University of Connecticut, Food Marketing Policy Center.
  5. Nevo, Aviv, 2001. "Measuring Market Power in the Ready-to-Eat Cereal Industry," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 69(2), pages 307-42, March.
  6. Villas-Boas, Sofia B., 2007. "Vertical relationships between manufacturers and retailers: inference with limited data," Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley, Working Paper Series qt6gz1t778, Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley.
  7. Johnson, Stanley R. & Stonehouse, D. Peter & Hassan, Zuhair A., 1992. "Market Demand for Dairy Products," Staff General Research Papers 575, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  8. Canan, Basak & Cotterill, Ronald W., 2005. "Strategic Pricing in a Differentiated Product Oligopoly Model: Fluid Milk in Boston," Research Reports 25158, University of Connecticut, Food Marketing Policy Center.
  9. Steven T. Berry, 1994. "Estimating Discrete-Choice Models of Product Differentiation," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 25(2), pages 242-262, Summer.
  10. Rebecca Hellerstein, 2004. "Who Bears the Cost of a Change in the Exchange Rate?," Econometric Society 2004 North American Summer Meetings 589, Econometric Society.
  11. Kim, Donghun, 2004. "Estimation of the Effects of New Brands on Incumbents' Profits and Consumer Welfare: The U.S. Processed Cheese Market Case," Research Reports 25192, University of Connecticut, Food Marketing Policy Center.
  12. Junko Kinoshita & Nobuhiro Suzuki & Harry M. Kaiser, 2002. "Explaining pricing conduct in a product-differentiated oligopolistic market: An empirical application of a price conjectural variations model," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(4), pages 427-436.
  13. Chidmi, Benaissa & Lopez, Rigoberto A., 2007. "AJAE Appendix: Brand-Supermarket Demand for Breakfast Cereals and Retail Competition," American Journal of Agricultural Economics Appendices, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 89(2), May.
  14. Berry, Steven & Levinsohn, James & Pakes, Ariel, 1995. "Automobile Prices in Market Equilibrium," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 63(4), pages 841-90, July.
  15. Dixit, Avinash K & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1977. "Monopolistic Competition and Optimum Product Diversity," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 67(3), pages 297-308, June.
  16. Deaton, Angus S & Muellbauer, John, 1980. "An Almost Ideal Demand System," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(3), pages 312-26, June.
  17. Benaissa Chidmi & Rigoberto A. Lopez, 2007. "Brand-Supermarket Demand for Breakfast Cereals and Retail Competition," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 89(2), pages 324-337.
  18. Jerry HAUSMAN & Gregory LEONARD & J. Douglas ZONA, 1994. "Competitive Analysis with Differentiated Products," Annales d'Economie et de Statistique, ENSAE, issue 34, pages 159-180.
  19. Aviv Nevo, 2000. "A Practitioner's Guide to Estimation of Random-Coefficients Logit Models of Demand," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 9(4), pages 513-548, December.
  20. Junko Kinoshita & Nobuhiro Suzuki & Tamotsu Kawamura & Yasuhito Watanabe & Harry M. Kaiser, 2001. "Estimating own and cross brand price elasticities, and price-cost margin ratios using store-level daily scanner data," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 17(4), pages 515-525.
  21. Eliza M. Mojduszka & Julie A. Caswell & J. Michael Harris, 2001. "Consumer choice of food products and the implications for price competition and government policy," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 17(1), pages 81-104.
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