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The Geography of the Gold Standard

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  • Eichengreen, Barry
  • Flandreau, Marc

Abstract

In this paper we chart the geography of the gold standard. We highlight the late date of the move to gold and the variety of transition strategies. Whether a country with a currency convertible into specie operated a gold, silver, or bimetallic standard at mid-century depended not so much on whether it was rich or poor as on the monetary standard of the foreign country or countries to which its transactions were linked. When it came to the distinction between specie convertibility and inconvertibility, however, domestic economic conditions came into play. In particular, there was a strong correlation between economic development, as proxied by the level of per capital incomes, and possession of a convertible Currency. Most countries went onto the gold standard between the 1870s and the first decade of the 20th century. We enumerate the factors propelling this transition and analyze variations in its timing. Factors shaping the course of this transition include the level of economic development, the magnitude of reserves relative to world specie markets, whether reserves were concentrated at the central bank, and the presence or absence of imperial ties.

Suggested Citation

  • Eichengreen, Barry & Flandreau, Marc, 1994. "The Geography of the Gold Standard," Center for International and Development Economics Research (CIDER) Working Papers 233393, University of California-Berkeley, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:ucbewp:233393
    DOI: 10.22004/ag.econ.233393
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    Keywords

    Financial Economics;

    JEL classification:

    • F0 - International Economics - - General
    • N0 - Economic History - - General

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