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Speculative Attacks on Pegged Exchange Rates: An Empirical Exploration with Special Reference to the European Monetary System

  • Eichengreen, Barry
  • Rose, Andrew K
  • Wyplosz, Charles

This paper presents an empirical analysis of speculative attacks on pegged exchange rates in 22 countries between 1967 and 1992. We define speculative attacks or crises as large movements in exchange rates, interest rates, and international reserves. We develop stylized facts concerning the univariate behaviour of a variety of macroeconomic variables, comparing crises with periods of tranquility. For ERM observations we cannot reject the null hypothesis that there are few significant differences in the behaviour of key macroeconomic variables between crisis and non-crisis periods. This null hypothesis can be decisively rejected for non-ERM observations, however. Precisely the opposite pattern is evident in the behaviour of actual realignments and changes in exchange rate regimes. We attempt to tie these findings to the theoretical literature on balance of payments crises.

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Paper provided by C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers in its series CEPR Discussion Papers with number 1060.

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Date of creation: Nov 1994
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Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:1060
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  1. Flood, Robert P & Garber, Peter M, 1984. "Gold Monetization and Gold Discipline," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 92(1), pages 90-107, February.
  2. Bensaid, B.B. & Jeanne, O., 1995. "The Instability of Fixed Exchange Rate Systems when Raising the Nominal Interest Rate is Costly," Papers 9536, Tilburg - Center for Economic Research.
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  4. Dellas, H. & Stockman, A.C., 1988. "Self-Fullfilling Expectations, Speculative Attacks And Capital Controls," RCER Working Papers 138, University of Rochester - Center for Economic Research (RCER).
  5. F. Gulcin Ozkan & Alan Sutherland, . "A Model of the ERM Crisis," EPRU Working Paper Series 93-09, Economic Policy Research Unit (EPRU), University of Copenhagen. Department of Economics.
  6. Gros, Daniel, 1992. "Capital controls and foreign exchange market crises in the EMS," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 36(8), pages 1533-1544, December.
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  9. Pierre-Richard Agénor & Jagdeep S. Bhandari & Robert P. Flood, 1992. "Speculative Attacks and Models of Balance of Payments Crises," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 39(2), pages 357-394, June.
  10. Michael W. Klein & Nancy P. Marion, 1994. "Explaining the Duration of Exchange-Rate Pegs," NBER Working Papers 4651, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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  12. Woo, Wing T., 1985. "The monetary approach to exchange rate determination under rational expectations: The dollar-deutschmark rate," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1-2), pages 1-16, February.
  13. Stephen W. Salant & Dale W. Henderson, 1976. "Market anticipations, government policy, and the price of gold," International Finance Discussion Papers 81, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  14. Willman, Alpo, 1988. "The collapse of the fixed exchange rate regime with sticky wages and imperfect substitutability between domestic and foreign bonds," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 32(9), pages 1817-1838, November.
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  16. Obstfeld, Maurice, 1984. "Balance-of-Payments Crises and Devaluation," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 16(2), pages 208-17, May.
  17. Eichengreen, Barry & Rose, Andrew K & Wyplosz, Charles, 1994. "Is There a Safe Passage to EMU? Evidence on Capital Controls and a Proposal," CEPR Discussion Papers 1061, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  18. Girton, Lance & Roper, Don, 1977. "A Monetary Model of Exchange Market Pressure Applied to the Postwar Canadian Experience," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 67(4), pages 537-48, September.
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  22. Blackburn, Keith & Sola, Martin, 1993. " Speculative Currency Attacks and Balance of Payments Crises," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 7(2), pages 119-44, June.
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  24. Claessens, Stijn, 1991. "Balance of payments crises in an optimal portfolio model," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 81-101, January.
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  26. Krugman, Paul, 1979. "A Model of Balance-of-Payments Crises," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 11(3), pages 311-25, August.
  27. John Williamson, 1993. "EMS and EMU After the Fall: A Comment," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 16(3), pages 377-389, 05.
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  29. Grilli, Vittorio U., 1986. "Buying and selling attacks on fixed exchange rate systems," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1-2), pages 143-156, February.
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