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The Stability of the Gold Standard and the Evolution of the International Monetary System

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  • Tamim Bayoumi and Barry Eichengreen.

Abstract

This paper examines some popular explanations for the smooth operation of the pre-1914 gold standard. We find that the rapid adjustment of economies to underlying disturbances played an important role in stabilizing output and employment under the gold standard system, but no evidence that this success also reflected relatively small underlying disturbances. Finally, the paper also suggests an explanation for the evolution of the international monetary system based on growing nominal inertia over time.
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Suggested Citation

  • Tamim Bayoumi and Barry Eichengreen., 1994. "The Stability of the Gold Standard and the Evolution of the International Monetary System," Center for International and Development Economics Research (CIDER) Working Papers C94-040, University of California at Berkeley.
  • Handle: RePEc:ucb:calbcd:c94-040
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Michael D. Bordo, 1993. "The gold standard, Bretton Woods and other monetary regimes: a historical appraisal," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Mar, pages 123-191.
    2. Canzoneri, Matthew B, 1985. "Monetary Policy Games and the Role of Private Information," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(5), pages 1056-1070, December.
    3. Bayoumi, Tamim & Eichengreen, Barry, 1994. "Macroeconomic Adjustment under Bretton Woods and the Post-Bretton-Woods Float: An Impulse-Response Analysis," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 104(425), pages 813-827, July.
    4. Gabriel De Kock & Vittorio Grilli, 1989. "Endogenous exchange rate regime switches," Research Paper 8915, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    5. Obstfeld, Maurice, 1997. "Destabilizing effects of exchange-rate escape clauses," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(1-2), pages 61-77, August.
    6. Romer, Christina D, 1989. "The Prewar Business Cycle Reconsidered: New Estimates of Gross National Product, 1869-1908," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(1), pages 1-37, February.
    7. Eichengreen, Barry, 1994. "Deja Vu All Over Again: Lessons from the Gold Standard for European Monetary Unification," Center for International and Development Economics Research (CIDER) Working Papers 233215, University of California-Berkeley, Department of Economics.
    8. Sachs, Jeffrey, 1980. "The Changing Cyclical Behavior of Wages and Prices: 1890-1976," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(1), pages 78-90, March.
    9. Phillip Cagan, 1975. "Changes in the Recession Behavior of Wholesale Prices in the 1920s and Post-World War II," NBER Chapters, in: Explorations in Economic Research, Volume 2, number 1, pages 54-104, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    10. Keating, John W & Nye, John V, 1998. "Permanent and Transitory Shocks in Real Output: Estimates from Nineteenth-Century and Postwar Economies," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 30(2), pages 231-251, May.
    11. Eichengreen, Barry, 1996. "Golden Fetters: The Gold Standard and the Great Depression, 1919-1939," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195101133.
    12. Gabriel de Koch & Vittorio Grilli, 1989. "Endogenous Exchange Rate Regime Switches," NBER Working Papers 3066, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Barry Eichengreen., 1994. "History and Reform of the International Monetary System," Center for International and Development Economics Research (CIDER) Working Papers C94-041, University of California at Berkeley.
    2. Jeffrey A. Frankel & Andrew K. Rose, 1994. "A Survey of Empirical Research on Nominal Exchange Rates," NBER Working Papers 4865, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Ola Grytten & Arngrim Hunnes, 2009. "Price stability and inflation persistence during the international gold standard: The Scandinavian case," Working Paper 2009/20, Norges Bank.
    4. Colin McKenzie, 2006. "Australia's Deflation in the 1890s," Discussion papers 06017, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    5. Eichengreen, Barry & Tobin, James & Wyplosz, Charles, 1995. "Two Cases for Sand in the Wheels of International Finance," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 105(428), pages 162-172, January.
    6. Eichengreen, Barry & Flandreau, Marc, 1994. "The Geography of the Gold Standard," Center for International and Development Economics Research (CIDER) Working Papers 233393, University of California-Berkeley, Department of Economics.
    7. Obstfeld, Maurice, 1996. "Intertemporal price speculation and the optimal current-account deficit: reply and clarification," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 141-147, February.
    8. Eichengreen, Barry, 1994. "The Bretton Woods System: Paradise Lost?," Center for International and Development Economics Research (CIDER) Working Papers 233394, University of California-Berkeley, Department of Economics.
    9. Eichengreen, Barry & Wyplosz, Charles, 1995. "What Do Currency Crises Tell Us About the Future of the International Monetary System?," Center for International and Development Economics Research (CIDER) Working Papers 233418, University of California-Berkeley, Department of Economics.
    10. Abdoulganiour Almame Tinta, 2017. "The determinants of participation in global value chains: The case of ECOWAS," Cogent Economics & Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 5(1), pages 1389252-138, January.
    11. Bayoumi, Tamim & Bordo, Michael D, 1998. "Getting Pegged: Comparing the 1879 and 1925 Gold Resumptions," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 50(1), pages 122-149, January.
    12. Michael D. Bordo & Barry Eichengreen, 1998. "The Rise and Fall of a Barbarous Relic: The Role of Gold in the International Monetary SYstem," NBER Working Papers 6436, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    13. Mercea Handro Patricia Amalia, 2017. "Opinions On International Reserves Management - Post Crisis," Annals - Economy Series, Constantin Brancusi University, Faculty of Economics, vol. 1, pages 246-252, December.
    14. Nephil Matangi Maskay, 2000. "A cautionary note in using patterns of shocks to determine optimal exchange rate policy. An exploration of Nepalese and Indian exchange rate relations: 1964-1994," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 32(4), pages 491-497.
    15. Luis A. V. Catão & Solomos N. Solomou, 2005. "Effective Exchange Rates and the Classical Gold Standard Adjustment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(4), pages 1259-1275, September.

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    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • F33 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions
    • N10 - Economic History - - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Industrial Structure; Growth; Fluctuations - - - General, International, or Comparative

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