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Three Comments on Exchange Rate Stabilization and European Monetary Union

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  • Frankel, Jeffrey

Abstract

This working paper consists of three comments on exchange rate matters, presented at recent conferences in Europe. They concern, respectively, why the Maastricht Agreement of December 1991 specified fiscal targets as the requirements for countries to join European bank intervention in the foreign exchange market. Foreign exchange intervention may be able to have an independent effect on the exchange rate in the short run. Nevertheless, a small country that wishes to fix its exchange rate and eliminate barriers to international capital movement, as a means of integrating with its neighbors, must ultimately be prepared to give up all monetary independence. We learned in 1992 that the populations of most European countries are in fact not yet prepared to give up that much economic sovereignty, notwithstanding the political aspirations of their leaders.

Suggested Citation

  • Frankel, Jeffrey, 1993. "Three Comments on Exchange Rate Stabilization and European Monetary Union," Center for International and Development Economics Research (CIDER) Working Papers 233192, University of California-Berkeley, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:ucbewp:233192
    DOI: 10.22004/ag.econ.233192
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    Cited by:

    1. Eichengreen, Barry & Tobin, James & Wyplosz, Charles, 1995. "Two Cases for Sand in the Wheels of International Finance," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 105(428), pages 162-172, January.
    2. Frankel, Jeffrey A. & Funke, Norbert, 1994. "A Two-Country Analysis of International Targeting of Nominal GNP," Center for International and Development Economics Research (CIDER) Working Papers 233377, University of California-Berkeley, Department of Economics.
    3. Barry Eichengreen., 1993. "International Monetary Arrangements for the 21st Century," Center for International and Development Economics Research (CIDER) Working Papers C93-021, University of California at Berkeley.
    4. Barry Eichengreen., 1994. "History and Reform of the International Monetary System," Center for International and Development Economics Research (CIDER) Working Papers C94-041, University of California at Berkeley.
    5. Eichengreen, Barry & Rose, Andrew K & Wyplosz, Charles, 1994. "Speculative Attacks on Pegged Exchange Rates: An Empirical Exploration with Special Reference to the European Monetary System," CEPR Discussion Papers 1060, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    6. Eichengreen, Barry, 1994. "The Bretton Woods System: Paradise Lost?," Center for International and Development Economics Research (CIDER) Working Papers 233394, University of California-Berkeley, Department of Economics.
    7. Eichengreen, Barry, 1993. "A Marshall Plan for the East: Options for 1993," Center for International and Development Economics Research (CIDER) Working Papers 233185, University of California-Berkeley, Department of Economics.
    8. Maurice Obstfeld., 1993. "Model Trending Real Exchange Rates," Center for International and Development Economics Research (CIDER) Working Papers C93-011, University of California at Berkeley.
    9. Barry Eichengreen., 1993. "The Crisis in the EMS and the Transition to EMU: An Interim Assessment," Center for International and Development Economics Research (CIDER) Working Papers C93-022, University of California at Berkeley.
    10. Pranab Bardhan, 1998. "The Contributions of Endogenous Growth Theory to the Analysis of Development Problems: An Assessment," Palgrave Macmillan Books, in: Fabrizio Coricelli & Massimo di Matteo & Frank Hahn (ed.), New Theories in Growth and Development, chapter 5, pages 97-110, Palgrave Macmillan.
    11. Stein, Ernesto H. & Streb, Jorge M., 1998. "Political stabilization cycles in high-inflation economies," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(1), pages 159-180, June.
    12. Maurice Obstfeld, 1993. "International Capital Mobility in the 1990s," NBER Working Papers 4534, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    13. Eichengreen, Barry & Bayoumi, Tamim, 1994. "The political economy of fiscal restrictions: Implications for Europe from the United States," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 38(3-4), pages 783-791, April.
    14. Casella, Alessandra, 1993. "Trade as Engine of Political Change: A Parable," Center for International and Development Economics Research (CIDER) Working Papers 233188, University of California-Berkeley, Department of Economics.
    15. Eichengreen, Barry, 1993. "Thinking about Migration: Notes on European Migration Pressures at the Dawn of the Next Millennium," Center for International and Development Economics Research (CIDER) Working Papers 233200, University of California-Berkeley, Department of Economics.
    16. Eichengreen, Barry & Flandreau, Marc, 1994. "The Geography of the Gold Standard," Center for International and Development Economics Research (CIDER) Working Papers 233393, University of California-Berkeley, Department of Economics.
    17. Jeffrey A. Frankel, 1993. "Monetary regime choices for a semi-open country," Pacific Basin Working Paper Series 93-02, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
    18. Jeffrey A. Frankel and Shang-Jin Wei., 1993. "Emerging Currency Blocs," Center for International and Development Economics Research (CIDER) Working Papers C93-026, University of California at Berkeley.
    19. Barry Eichengreen., 1993. "Prerequisites for International Monetary Stability," Center for International and Development Economics Research (CIDER) Working Papers C93-018, University of California at Berkeley.
    20. Bardhan, Pranab, 1993. "Rational Fools and Cooperation in a Poor Hydraulic Economy," Center for International and Development Economics Research (CIDER) Working Papers 233195, University of California-Berkeley, Department of Economics.
    21. Eichengreen, Barry, 1995. "Sterling in Decline Again: The 1931 and 1992 Crises Compared," Center for International and Development Economics Research (CIDER) Working Papers 233404, University of California-Berkeley, Department of Economics.
    22. Barry Eichengreen., 1994. "Deja Vu All Over Again: Lessons from the Gold Standard for European Monetary Unification," Center for International and Development Economics Research (CIDER) Working Papers C94-032, University of California at Berkeley.
    23. Barry Eichengreen and Beth Simmons., 1993. "International Economics and Domestic Politics: Notes on the 1920s," Center for International and Development Economics Research (CIDER) Working Papers C93-029, University of California at Berkeley.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    International Development;

    JEL classification:

    • F31 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Foreign Exchange
    • F33 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions
    • F36 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Financial Aspects of Economic Integration

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