Does the US use Food Safety Regulation as a Disguised Barrier to Trade? Evidence from Canadian Agri-food Commodity Exports
This study asks the question: is the US using food safety regulations illegitimately, that is as a non-tariff barrier to trade rather than to manage food safety risks, specifically in the context of agri-food imports from Canada? Data on US import refusals of three categories of fruits, vegetables and nuts, cereal products, and seafood are used as a proxy for stringency and enforcement of US food safety regulations, with a negative binomial generalized linear model being employed to determine the significance of range of food safety risk and other less legitimate drivers of US food safety regulations. Key variables used to capture political influence on US food safety regulations are lobbying contributions, changes in import prices, and the occurrence of countervailing investigations. While US border rejections for these commodities are largely explained by food safety risks, there is evidence of political influence, with qualitative and quantitative difference across the commodities.
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- Grossman, Gene M & Helpman, Elhanan, 1994.
"Protection for Sale,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 84(4), pages 833-850, September.
- Grossman, G.M. & Helpman, E., 1992. "Protection for Sale," Papers 162, Princeton, Woodrow Wilson School - Public and International Affairs.
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- Grossman, Gene & Helpman, Elhanan, 1993. "Protection for Sale," CEPR Discussion Papers 827, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Gene M. Grossman & Elhanan Helpman, 1992. "Protection For Sale," NBER Working Papers 4149, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Roberts, Donna & Josling, Timothy E. & Orden, David, 1999. "A Framework for Analyzing Technical Trade Barriers in Agricultural Markets," Technical Bulletins 33560, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
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- Kathy Baylis & Lia Nogueira & Kathryn Pace, 2010. "Food Import Refusals: Evidence from the European Union," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 93(2), pages 566-572.
- Buzby, Jean C. & Unnevehr, Laurian J. & Roberts, Donna, 2008. "Food Safety and Imports: An Analysis of FDA Food-Related Import Refusal Reports," Economic Information Bulletin 58626, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
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