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Forecasting Macroeconomic Variables using Neural Network Models and Three Automated Model Selection Techniques

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  • Anders Bredahl Kock

    () (Aarhus University and CREATES)

  • Timo Teräsvirta

    () (Aarhus University and CREATES)

Abstract

In this paper we consider the forecasting performance of a well-defined class of flexible models, the so-called single hidden-layer feedforward neural network models. A major aim of our study is to find out whether they, due to their flexibility, are as useful tools in economic forecasting as some previous studies have indicated. When forecasting with neural network models one faces several problems, all of which influence the accuracy of the forecasts. First, neural networks are often hard to estimate due to their highly nonlinear structure. In fact, their parameters are not even globally identified. Recently, White (2006) presented a solution that amounts to converting the specification and nonlinear estimation problem into a linear model selection and estimation problem. He called this procedure the QuickNet and we shall compare its performance to two other procedures which are built on the linearisation idea: the Marginal Bridge Estimator and Autometrics. Second, one must decide whether forecasting should be carried out recursively or directly. Comparisons of these two methodss exist for linear models and here these comparisons are extended to neural networks. Finally, a nonlinear model such as the neural network model is not appropriate if the data is generated by a linear mechanism. Hence, it might be appropriate to test the null of linearity prior to building a nonlinear model. We investigate whether this kind of pretesting improves the forecast accuracy compared to the case where this is not done.

Suggested Citation

  • Anders Bredahl Kock & Timo Teräsvirta, 2011. "Forecasting Macroeconomic Variables using Neural Network Models and Three Automated Model Selection Techniques," CREATES Research Papers 2011-27, Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University.
  • Handle: RePEc:aah:create:2011-27
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Makridakis, Spyros & Hibon, Michele, 2000. "The M3-Competition: results, conclusions and implications," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 451-476.
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    7. Kuan, Chung-Ming & Liu, Tung, 1995. "Forecasting Exchange Rates Using Feedforward and Recurrent Neural Networks," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 10(4), pages 347-364, Oct.-Dec..
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    16. Anders Bredahl Kock & Timo Teräsvirta, 2010. "Forecasting with nonlinear time series models," CREATES Research Papers 2010-01, Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University.
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    Cited by:

    1. Brian Chi-ang Lin & Siqi Zheng & Felix Pretis & Lea Schneider & Jason E. Smerdon & David F. Hendry, 2016. "Detecting Volcanic Eruptions In Temperature Reconstructions By Designed Break-Indicator Saturation," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 30(3), pages 403-429, July.
    2. Kock Anders Bredahl, 2011. "Forecasting with Universal Approximators and a Learning Algorithm," Journal of Time Series Econometrics, De Gruyter, vol. 3(3), pages 1-32, October.
    3. Håvard Hungnes, 2018. "Encompassing tests for evaluating multi-step system forecasts invariant to linear transformations," Discussion Papers 871, Statistics Norway, Research Department.
    4. Tae-Hwy Lee & Zhou Xi & Ru Zhang, 2013. "Testing for Neglected Nonlinearity Using Regularized Artificial Neural Networks," Working Papers 201422, University of California at Riverside, Department of Economics, revised Apr 2012.
    5. Anders Bredahl Kock & Laurent A.F. Callot, 2012. "Oracle Efficient Estimation and Forecasting with the Adaptive LASSO and the Adaptive Group LASSO in Vector Autoregressions," CREATES Research Papers 2012-38, Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    artificial neural network; forecast comparison; model selection; nonlinear autoregressive model; nonlinear time series; root mean square forecast error; Wilcoxon’s signed-rank test;

    JEL classification:

    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes
    • C45 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics - - - Neural Networks and Related Topics
    • C52 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Model Evaluation, Validation, and Selection
    • C53 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Forecasting and Prediction Models; Simulation Methods

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