Gender in Bolivian Production : Reducing Differences in Formality and Productivity of Firms
A main goal of this study is to determine the variables responsible for the lower formality of women-owned businesses. The companion study (the World Bank 2007a) shows that Bolivia's informal sector is the largest in Latin America by many definitions and measures. It also provides a rationale for promoting formality given the many negative effects of a high rate of informality. These negative effects include a lower growth potential as informal firms tend to be less productive owing to limited access to physical, financial, and human capital, and a smaller scale of operations; negative fiscal impacts as informal firms "free ride" on services provided with fiscal resources; and negative social externalities, including weaker rule of law and public institutions, increased corruption, and weakened ability to enforce contracts. A second goal of this study is to identify gender-based productivity constraints that hinder the growth of female-owned businesses. First, author's analysis of the impact of formality on profitability shows that the gains of formalization for most female-owned businesses increase as the firms grow. Second, author's find that the smaller scale of operation of female-owned firms is one of the main causes of gender-based differences in productivity and profitability. However, most of the differences between male and female-owned firms diminish or disappear as firms grow.
|This book is provided by The World Bank in its series World Bank Publications with number 2669 and published in 2009.|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: (202) 477-1234
Web page: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Dean Karlan & Martin Valdivia, 2007.
"Teaching Entrepreneurship: Impact of Business Training on Microfinance Clients and Institutions,"
107, Center for Global Development.
- Dean Karlan & Martin Valdivia, 2011. "Teaching Entrepreneurship: Impact of Business Training on Microfinance Clients and Institutions," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 93(2), pages 510-527, May.
- Dean Karlan & Martin Valdivia, 2006. "Teaching entrepreneurship: Impact of business training on microfinance clients and institutions," Natural Field Experiments 00282, The Field Experiments Website.
- Esther Duflo & Christopher Udry, 2003.
"Intrahousehold Resource Allocation in Côte D'ivoire: Social Norms, Separate Accounts and Consumption Choices,"
857, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
- Esther Duflo & Christopher Udry, 2004. "Intrahousehold Resource Allocation in Cote d'Ivoire: Social Norms, Separate Accounts and Consumption Choices," NBER Working Papers 10498, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Christopher R. Udry & Esther Duflo, 2004. "Intrahousehold Resource Allocation in Cote D'Ivoire: Social Norms, Separate Accounts and Consumption Choices," Yale School of Management Working Papers ysm407, Yale School of Management.
- Mark M. Pitt & Shahidur R. Khandker, 1998. "The Impact of Group-Based Credit Programs on Poor Households in Bangladesh: Does the Gender of Participants Matter?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 106(5), pages 958-996, October.
- Martin Valdivia & Dean Karlan, 2006. "Teaching Entrepreneurship: Impact of Business Training on Microfinance Clients and Institutions," Working Papers 941, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
- Paul Schultz, T., 2004. "School subsidies for the poor: evaluating the Mexican Progresa poverty program," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(1), pages 199-250, June.
- de Mel, Suresh & McKenzie, David & Woodruff, Christopher, 2007. "Measuring microenterprise profits : don't ask how the sausage is made," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4229, The World Bank.
- Gong, Xiaodong & van Soest, Arthur, 2002.
"Wage differentials and mobility in the urban labour market: a panel data analysis for Mexico,"
Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 513-529, September.
- Gong, Xiaodong & van Soest, Arthur, 2001. "Wage Differentials and Mobility in the Urban Labor Market: A Panel Data Analysis for Mexico," IZA Discussion Papers 329, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Sebastian Galiani & Ernesto Schargrodsky, 2005.
"Property Rights for the Poor: Effects of Land Titling,"
Business School Working Papers
proprightspoor, Universidad Torcuato Di Tella.
- Galiani, Sebastian & Schargrodsky, Ernesto, 2010. "Property rights for the poor: Effects of land titling," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 94(9-10), pages 700-729, October.
- Sebastian Galiani & Ernesto Schargrodsky, 2010. "Property Rights for the Poor: Effects of Land Titling," CEDLAS, Working Papers 0103, CEDLAS, Universidad Nacional de La Plata.
- Ximena Pena-Parga & Amanda Glassman, 2004. "Demand For Child Care And Female Employment In Colombia," DOCUMENTOS CEDE 002267, UNIVERSIDAD DE LOS ANDES-CEDE.
- Ruthanne Deutsch & Andrew Morrison & Hugo Nopo & Claudia Piras, 2005. "Working Within Confines: Occupational Segregation By Sex For Three Latin American Countries," The IUP Journal of Applied Economics, IUP Publications, vol. 0(3), pages 50-59, May.
- Katayama, Hajime & Lu, Shihua & Tybout, James R., 2009. "Firm-level productivity studies: Illusions and a solution," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 403-413, May.
- Hallman, Kelly & Quisumbing, Agnes R. & Ruel, Marie T. & de la Briere, Benedicte, 2003.
"Childcare and work,"
151, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Patrinos, Harry Anthony & Skoufias, Emmanuel & Lunde, Trine, 2007. "Indigenous peoples in Latin America : economic opportunities and social networks," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4227, The World Bank.
- Deere, Carmen Diana & Leon, Magdalena, 2003. "The Gender Asset Gap: Land in Latin America," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 31(6), pages 925-947, June.
- Kenyon, Thomas, 2007. "A framework for thinking about enterprise formalization policies in developing countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4235, The World Bank.
- Skoufias, Emmanuel & Parker, Susan W., 2001.
"Conditional cash transfers and their impact on child work and schooling,"
123, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Skoufias, Emmanuel & Parker, Susan W., 2001. "Conditional cash transfers and their impact on child work and schooling," FCND discussion papers 123, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Duncan Thomas, 1990.
"Intra-Household Resource Allocation: An Inferential Approach,"
Journal of Human Resources,
University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 25(4), pages 635-664.
- Thomas, D., 1989. "Intra-Household Resource Allocation: An Inferential Approach," Papers 586, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
- Pagan, Jose A & Sanchez, Susana M, 2000. "Gender Differences in Labor Market Decisions: Evidence from Rural Mexico," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 48(3), pages 619-37, April.
- Maria Tannuri-Pianto & Donald Pianto, 2004.
"Informal employment in Bolivia: A lost proposition?,"
Econometric Society 2004 Latin American Meetings
149, Econometric Society.
- Maria Tannuri-Pianto & Donald M. Pianto & Omar Arias, 2004. "Informal Employment in Bolivia: A Lost Proposition?," Working papers - Textos para Discussao do Departamento de Economia da Universidade de Brasilia 317, Departamento de Economia da Universidade de Brasilia.
- Handa, Sudhanshu, 1996. "Expenditure behavior and children's welfare: An analysis of female headed households in Jamaica," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(1), pages 165-187, June.
- Mercado, Alejandro F. & Ríos, Fernando, 2005. "La Informalidad: ¿Estrategia de Sobrevivencia o Forma de Vida Alternativa?," Documentos de trabajo 4/2005, Instituto de Investigaciones Socio-Económicas (IISEC), Universidad Católica Boliviana.
- Cunningham, Wendy V. & Gomez, Carlos Ramos, 2004. "The home as factory floor : employment and remuneration of home-based workers," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3295, The World Bank.
- Redfern, Andy & Snedker, Paul, 2002. "Creating market opportunities for small enterprises : experiences of the fair trade movement," ILO Working Papers 357069, International Labour Organization.
- Guillermo E. Perry & William F. Maloney & Omar S. Arias & Pablo Fajnzylber & Andrew D. Mason & Jaime Saavedra-Chanduvi, 2007. "Informality : Exit and Exclusion," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6730, December.
- Esther Duflo, 2000.
"Grandmothers and Granddaughters: Old Age Pension and Intra-household Allocation in South Africa,"
NBER Working Papers
8061, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Esther Duflo, 2003. "Grandmothers and Granddaughters: Old-Age Pensions and Intrahousehold Allocation in South Africa," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 17(1), pages 1-25, June.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wbk:wbpubs:2669. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Thomas Breineder)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.