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Factors affecting the adoption of multiple climate‐smart agricultural practices in the Indo‐Gangetic Plains of India


  • Jeetendra Prakash Aryal
  • Dil Bahadur Rahut
  • Sofina Maharjan
  • Olaf Erenstein


Climate change poses a major threat to agricultural production and food security in India, and climate‐smart agriculture (CSA) is crucial in addressing the potential impacts. Using survey data from 1,267 farm households in 25 villages from Bihar and Haryana in the Indo‐Gangetic Plains, this study analyzes the factors that determine the probability and level of adoption of multiple CSA practices, including seeds of stress‐tolerant varieties, minimum tillage, laser land leveling, site‐specific nutrient management and crop diversification. We applied a multivariate probit model for the simultaneous multiple adoption decisions, and ordered probit models for assessing the factors affecting the level of adoption. The adoption of the various CSA practices is interrelated, whereas several factors, including household characteristics, plot characteristics, market access and major climate risks are found to affect the probability and level of CSA adoption. Climate‐smart agriculture (CSA) adoption and its intensity also vary significantly between eastern Bihar, which is relatively poor and densely populated, and north‐western Haryana. Engaging multiple stakeholders such as farmers, agricultural institutions, agricultural service providers and concerned government departments at the local level is crucial for the large‐scale uptake of CSA. The study, therefore, calls for agricultural policy reforms so that most of the issues related to the uptake of CSA can be adequately addressed.

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  • Jeetendra Prakash Aryal & Dil Bahadur Rahut & Sofina Maharjan & Olaf Erenstein, 2018. "Factors affecting the adoption of multiple climate‐smart agricultural practices in the Indo‐Gangetic Plains of India," Natural Resources Forum, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 42(3), pages 141-158, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:wly:natres:v:42:y:2018:i:3:p:141-158
    DOI: 10.1111/1477-8947.12152

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    Cited by:

    1. Jeetendra P. Aryal & Arun Khatri‐Chhetri & Tek B. Sapkota & Dil B. Rahut & Olaf Erenstein, 2020. "Adoption and economic impacts of laser land leveling in the irrigated rice‐wheat system in Haryana, India using endogenous switching regression," Natural Resources Forum, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 44(3), pages 255-273, August.
    2. Tolulope E. Oladimeji & Oyakhilomen Oyinbo & Abubakar A. Hassan & Oseni Yusuf, 2020. "Understanding the Interdependence and Temporal Dynamics of Smallholders’ Adoption of Soil Conservation Practices: Evidence from Nigeria," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(7), pages 1-21, March.
    3. Jeetendra Prakash Aryal & Dil Bahadur Rahut & Tek B. Sapkota & Ritika Khurana & Arun Khatri-Chhetri, 2020. "Climate change mitigation options among farmers in South Asia," Environment, Development and Sustainability: A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Theory and Practice of Sustainable Development, Springer, vol. 22(4), pages 3267-3289, April.
    4. Victor O. Abegunde & Melusi Sibanda & Ajuruchukwu Obi, 2020. "Mainstreaming Climate-Smart Agriculture in Small-Scale Farming Systems: A Holistic Nonparametric Applicability Assessment in South Africa," Agriculture, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 10(3), pages 1-18, February.
    5. Victor O. Abegunde & Melusi Sibanda & Ajuruchukwu Obi, 2019. "Determinants of the Adoption of Climate-Smart Agricultural Practices by Small-Scale Farming Households in King Cetshwayo District Municipality, South Africa," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(1), pages 1-27, December.
    6. Jeetendra Prakash Aryal & Cathy R. Farnworth & Ritika Khurana & Srabashi Ray & Tek B. Sapkota & Dil Bahadur Rahut, 2020. "Does women’s participation in agricultural technology adoption decisions affect the adoption of climate‐smart agriculture? Insights from Indo‐Gangetic Plains of India," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 24(3), pages 973-990, August.
    7. Mamadou Sissoko & Melinda Smale & Annick Castiaux & Veronique Theriault, 2019. "Adoption of New Sorghum Varieties in Mali Through a Participatory Approach," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(17), pages 1-15, September.
    8. Misganaw Teshager Abeje & Atsushi Tsunekawa & Enyew Adgo & Nigussie Haregeweyn & Zerihun Nigussie & Zemen Ayalew & Asres Elias & Dessalegn Molla & Daregot Berihun, 2019. "Exploring Drivers of Livelihood Diversification and Its Effect on Adoption of Sustainable Land Management Practices in the Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(10), pages 1-23, May.

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