IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Do the macroeconomic factors influence the firm's investment decisions? A generalized method of moments (GMM) approach


  • Umar Farooq
  • Jaleel Ahmed
  • Shamshair Khan


The study checks association between the macroeconomic factors and corporate investment decision by using 10 years of data (2007–2016) of 12 Asian countries. There exist the series of studies, which discuss the firm‐level determinants of investment but very few studies have found the relationship between macroeconomic factors and corporate investment. So, with specific data set, this study is an attempt to fill this instant gap by exploring the relationship between macroeconomic factors and firm capital investment. GMM approach uses for estimation purposes. The results imply that increases in inflation rate decrease the investment due to increment in future cost of investment. Similarly, high interest rate decreases the corporate capital investment due to opportunistic options of early returns by investing in high interest income securities. The firms from high GDP growth countries carry higher investment level owing to business acceleration. However, the firms from high FDI inflow countries bear the low investment opportunities attributed to suppressed fierce competition. The countries having developed financial sector encourage their firms to invest more in banking securities instead of investing in physical long‐term investment, that is, investment in fixed assets due to professional management of funds by financial institutions and low substantial risks. Briefly, the findings of the study recommend that the corporate managers should focus on economic sensitivity while making decisions about any potential investment.

Suggested Citation

  • Umar Farooq & Jaleel Ahmed & Shamshair Khan, 2021. "Do the macroeconomic factors influence the firm's investment decisions? A generalized method of moments (GMM) approach," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 26(1), pages 790-801, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:wly:ijfiec:v:26:y:2021:i:1:p:790-801
    DOI: 10.1002/ijfe.1820

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL:
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Summers, Lawrence H, 1986. "Does the Stock Market Rationally Reflect Fundamental Values?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 41(3), pages 591-601, July.
    2. Burton G. Malkiel, 2003. "The Efficient Market Hypothesis and Its Critics," Working Papers 111, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Center for Economic Policy Studies..
    3. Elliot Aurissergues, 2016. "The missing corporate investment, are low interest rate to blame ?," Working Papers halshs-01348574, HAL.
    4. Kiichi Tokuoka, 2013. "Does a better business environment stimulate corporate investment in India?," Indian Growth and Development Review, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, vol. 6(2), pages 289-305, November.
    5. Shu, Yan & Broadstock, David C. & Xu, Bing, 2013. "The heterogeneous impact of macroeconomic information on firms' earnings forecasts," The British Accounting Review, Elsevier, vol. 45(4), pages 311-325.
    6. Fischer, Gregory, 2013. "Investment choice and inflation uncertainty," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 54259, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    7. Omay, Tolga & Öznur Kan, Elif, 2010. "Re-examining the threshold effects in the inflation-growth nexus with cross-sectionally dependent non-linear panel: Evidence from six industrialized economies," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 27(5), pages 996-1005, September.
    8. repec:pri:cepsud:91malkiel is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Miao Wang, 2009. "Manufacturing FDI and economic growth: evidence from Asian economies," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(8), pages 991-1002.
    10. Jorge M. Andraz & Paulo M.M. Rodrigues, 2010. "What causes economic growth in Portugal: exports or inward FDI?," Journal of Economic Studies, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, vol. 37(3), pages 267-287, August.
    11. Kolasa Marcin, 2008. "How does FDI inflow affect productivity of domestic firms? The role of horizontal and vertical spillovers, absorptive capacity and competition," The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(1), pages 155-173.
    12. Bialowolski, Piotr & Weziak-Bialowolska, Dorota, 2014. "External factors affecting investment decisions of companies," Economics - The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal (2007-2020), Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW Kiel), vol. 8, pages 1-21.
    13. Luis Alvarez, 2010. "Irreversible capital accumulation under interest rate uncertainty," Mathematical Methods of Operations Research, Springer;Gesellschaft für Operations Research (GOR);Nederlands Genootschap voor Besliskunde (NGB), vol. 72(2), pages 249-271, October.
    14. Qin, Duo, 2015. "Resurgence of the endogeneity-backed instrumental variable methods," Economics - The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal (2007-2020), Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW Kiel), vol. 9, pages 1-35.
    15. Tobin, James, 1969. "A General Equilibrium Approach to Monetary Theory," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 1(1), pages 15-29, February.
    16. Griliches, Zvi & Hausman, Jerry A., 1986. "Errors in variables in panel data," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 93-118, February.
    17. Xie, Shiqing & Mo, Taiping, 2015. "Differences in corporate saving rates in China: Ownership, monopoly, and financial development," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 25-34.
    18. Farooq, Umar & Ahmed Malik, Jaleel & Muhammad, Lakhi, 2018. "The Impact of Banking Sector Development on Capital Structure of Non-financial Sector Firms in Pakistan," Journal of Accounting and Finance in Emerging Economies, CSRC Publishing, Center for Sustainability Research and Consultancy Pakistan, vol. 4(2), pages 177-188, December.
    19. Mr. Paolo Mauro & Mr. Torbjorn I. Becker, 2006. "Output Drops and the Shocks That Matter," IMF Working Papers 2006/172, International Monetary Fund.
    20. Olatunji Toyin E Author Work Place-Name: Nigeria & Adegbite Tajudeen A Author Work Place-Name: Nigeria, 2014. "Investment in Fixed Assets and Firm Profitability: Empirical Evidence from the Nigerian Banking Sector," Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Management Studies, Asian Online Journal Publishing Group, vol. 1(3), pages 78-82.
    21. Castro, Fernanda & Kalatzis, Aquiles E.G. & Martins-Filho, Carlos, 2015. "Financing in an emerging economy: Does financial development or financial structure matter?," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(C), pages 96-123.
    22. Burton G. Malkiel, 2003. "The Efficient Market Hypothesis and Its Critics," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 17(1), pages 59-82, Winter.
    23. Muhammad Mahmud, 2003. "The Relationship between Economic Growth and Capital Structure of Listed Companies: Evidence of Japan, Malaysia, and Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 42(4), pages 727-750.
    24. Huseyin Gulen & Mihai Ion, 2016. "Editor's Choice Policy Uncertainty and Corporate Investment," The Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 29(3), pages 523-564.
    25. Jože Mencinger, 2003. "Does Foreign Direct Investment Always Enhance Economic Growth?," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 56(4), pages 491-508, November.
    26. Burton G. Malkiel, 2003. "The Efficient Market Hypothesis and Its Critics," Working Papers 111, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Center for Economic Policy Studies..
    27. Dr. Najia Saqib & Maryam Masnoon & Nabeel Rafique, 2013. "Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on Economic Growth of Pakistan," Advances in Management and Applied Economics, SCIENPRESS Ltd, vol. 3(1), pages 1-3.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Farooq, Umar & Ahmed, Jaleel & Shahbaz, Muhammad, 2022. "How various energy sources affect industrial investment? Empirical evidence from Asian economies," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 248(C).
    2. Bilal Haider Subhani & Umar Farooq & M. Ishaq Bhatti & Muhammad Asif Khan, 2021. "Economic Policy Uncertainty, National Culture, and Corporate Debt Financing," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(20), pages 1-15, October.
    3. Umar FAROOQ, 2023. "Trade Liberalization and Real Sector Investment Decisions: A Panel Data Evidence from Selected Economies of Asia," Journal for Economic Forecasting, Institute for Economic Forecasting, vol. 0(2), pages 52-71, June.
    4. Wen, Jun & Farooq, Umar & Tabash, Mosab I. & El Refae, Ghaleb A. & Ahmed, Jaleel & Subhani, Bilal Haider, 2021. "Government green environmental concerns and corporate real investment decisions: Does financial sector development matter?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 158(C).
    5. Tabash, Mosab I. & Mesagan, Ekundayo Peter & Farooq, Umar, 2022. "Dynamic linkage between natural resources, economic complexity, and economic growth: Empirical evidence from Africa," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 78(C).
    6. Jun Wen & Umar Farooq & Suhaib Anagreh & Mosab I. Tabash, 2022. "Quality of governance and corporate real investment: Assessing the impact of foreign aid," Bulletin of Economic Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 74(4), pages 1115-1134, October.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Pernagallo, Giuseppe & Torrisi, Benedetto, 2020. "Blindfolded monkeys or financial analysts: Who is worth your money? New evidence on informational inefficiencies in the U.S. stock market," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 539(C).
    2. Hannes Schwandt, 2018. "Wealth Shocks and Health Outcomes: Evidence from Stock Market Fluctuations," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 10(4), pages 349-377, October.
    3. Gleason, Katherine I. & Klock, Mark, 2006. "Intangible capital in the pharmaceutical and chemical industry," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 46(2), pages 300-314, May.
    4. Holian, Matthew & Joffe, Marc, 2013. "Assessing Municipal Bond Default Probabilities," MPRA Paper 46728, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Ehnts, Dirk & Carrión Álvarez, Miguel, 2013. "The theory of reflexivity: A non-stochastic randomness theory for business schools only?," IPE Working Papers 28/2013, Berlin School of Economics and Law, Institute for International Political Economy (IPE).
    6. Chester Curme & Michele Tumminello & Rosario N. Mantegna & H. Eugene Stanley & Dror Y. Kenett, 2015. "Emergence of statistically validated financial intraday lead-lag relationships," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(8), pages 1375-1386, August.
    7. Patrick Bisciari & Alain Durré & Alain Nyssens, 2003. "Stock market valuation in the United States," Working Paper Document 41, National Bank of Belgium.
    8. Marc D. Joffe, 2012. "Rating Government Bonds: Can We Raise Our Grade?," Econ Journal Watch, Econ Journal Watch, vol. 9(3), pages 350-365, September.
    9. Omay, Nazli C. & Karadagli, Ece C., 2010. "Testing Weak Form Market Efficiency for Emerging Economies: A Nonlinear Approach," MPRA Paper 27312, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. Bianchi, Sergio & Pianese, Augusto, 2018. "Time-varying Hurst–Hölder exponents and the dynamics of (in)efficiency in stock markets," Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, Elsevier, vol. 109(C), pages 64-75.
    11. Charron Jacques-Olivier, 2017. "Inefficient Debate. The EMH, the “Remarkable Error” and a Question of Point of View," Accounting, Economics, and Law: A Convivium, De Gruyter, vol. 7(3), pages 1-24, December.
    12. Thomas Delcey & Francesco Sergi, 2019. "The Efficient Market Hypothesis and Rational Expectations. How Did They Meet and Live (Happily?) Ever After," Working Papers hal-02187362, HAL.
    13. Daniel Martin Katz & Michael J Bommarito II & Tyler Soellinger & James Ming Chen, 2015. "Law on the Market? Abnormal Stock Returns and Supreme Court Decision-Making," Papers 1508.05751,, revised May 2017.
    14. Thomas Delcey & Francesco Sergi, 2019. "The Efficient Market Hypothesis and Rational Expectations. How Did They Meet and Live (Happily?) Ever After," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) hal-02187362, HAL.
    15. Peter C. Dawson, 2015. "The capital asset pricing model in economic perspective," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(6), pages 569-598, February.
    16. David M. Ritzwoller & Joseph P. Romano, 2019. "Uncertainty in the Hot Hand Fallacy: Detecting Streaky Alternatives to Random Bernoulli Sequences," Papers 1908.01406,, revised Apr 2021.
    17. Chia-Lin Chang & Jukka Ilomäki & Hannu Laurila & Michael McAleer, 2018. "Long Run Returns Predictability and Volatility with Moving Averages," Risks, MDPI, vol. 6(4), pages 1-18, September.
    18. Bell, Peter N, 2013. "New Testing Procedures to Assess Market Efficiency with Trading Rules," MPRA Paper 46701, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    19. Jitka Veselá & Alžběta Zíková, 2022. "Are the Czech, Polish, German and Dutch markets taking a random walk? [Konají český, polský, německý a nizozemský trh náhodnou procházku?]," Český finanční a účetní časopis, Prague University of Economics and Business, vol. 2022(2), pages 19-38.
    20. Muchnik, Lev & Bunde, Armin & Havlin, Shlomo, 2009. "Long term memory in extreme returns of financial time series," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 388(19), pages 4145-4150.

    More about this item


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wly:ijfiec:v:26:y:2021:i:1:p:790-801. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Wiley Content Delivery (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.