IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/wly/canjec/v53y2020i1p284-320.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Foreign direct investment in vertically related markets

Author

Listed:
  • Chrysovalantou Milliou
  • Apostolis Pavlou

Abstract

We study an MNE's choice of FDI mode in a vertically related market with local input sourcing. We show how the market's vertical structure and trading features affect this choice. An MNE's incentives to expand through cross‐border acquisition rather than through greenfield investment are stronger in markets with higher upstream bargaining power, upstream concentration and unobservable contract terms. The opposite holds in markets in which wholesale price contracts, instead of two‐part tariffs, are used. Our welfare analysis suggests that the host country should not always welcome FDI and should discourage FDI through acquisition. Investissements extérieurs directs sur les marchés verticaux. Dans cet article, nous étudions le choix d’une entreprise multinationale de procéder à un investissement extérieur direct dans un marché vertical avec sources d’approvisionnement locales. Nous montrons la façon dont la structure verticale et les caractéristiques commerciales du marché ont une incidence sur une telle décision. Les mesures incitatives offertes aux entreprises multinationales pour se développer par l’entremise d’acquisitions transfrontalières plutôt que par l’investissement dans de nouvelles installations sont plus fortes sur les marchés dotés d’un pouvoir de négociation et d’une concentration en amont plus élevés, ainsi que par des conditions contractuelles non observables. L’inverse s’observe sur les marchés où les contrats à prix de gros sont utilisés en lieu et place des tarifs binômes. En termes de bien‐être, notre analyse suggère que le pays hôte ne devrait pas toujours accueillir les investissements extérieurs directs, et devrait décourager ces mêmes investissements réalisés par l’entremise d’acquisitions.

Suggested Citation

  • Chrysovalantou Milliou & Apostolis Pavlou, 2020. "Foreign direct investment in vertically related markets," Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 53(1), pages 284-320, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:wly:canjec:v:53:y:2020:i:1:p:284-320
    DOI: 10.1111/caje.12429
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://doi.org/10.1111/caje.12429
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1111/caje.12429?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Daniel P. O'Brien & Greg Shaffer, 1992. "Vertical Control with Bilateral Contracts," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 23(3), pages 299-308, Autumn.
    2. Goh, Ai-Ting, 2005. "Knowledge diffusion, input supplier's technological effort and technology transfer via vertical relationships," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(2), pages 527-540, July.
    3. McAfee, R. Preston & Schwartz, Marius, 1995. "The non-existence of pairwise-proof equilibrium," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 49(3), pages 251-259, September.
    4. Markusen, James R. & Venables, Anthony J., 1999. "Foreign direct investment as a catalyst for industrial development," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 335-356, February.
    5. Jordaan, Jacob A., 2011. "FDI, Local Sourcing, and Supportive Linkages with Domestic Suppliers: The Case of Monterrey, Mexico," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(4), pages 620-632, April.
    6. Larry D. Qiu & Shengzu Wang, 2011. "FDI Policy, Greenfield Investment and Cross‐border Mergers," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 19(5), pages 836-851, November.
    7. Volker Nocke & Stephen Yeaple, 2008. "An Assignment Theory of Foreign Direct Investment," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 75(2), pages 529-557.
    8. Marco Pagnozzi & Salvatore Piccolo, 2012. "Vertical Separation with Private Contracts," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 122(559), pages 173-207, March.
    9. Emanuele Bacchiega & Olivier Bonroy & Emmanuel Petrakis, 2018. "Contract contingency in vertically related markets," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 27(4), pages 772-791, October.
    10. Moellers, Claudia & Normann, Hans-Theo & Snyder, Christopher M., 2017. "Communication in vertical markets: Experimental evidence," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 214-258.
    11. Chrysovalantou Milliou & Emmanuel Petrakis & Nikos Vettas, 2009. "(In)efficient Trading Forms in Competing Vertical Chains," Working Papers 0916, University of Crete, Department of Economics.
    12. Bakaouka, Elpiniki & Milliou, Chrysovalantou, 2018. "Vertical licensing, input pricing, and entry," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 66-96.
    13. Oliver Hart & Jean Tirole, 1990. "Vertical Integration and Market Foreclosure," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 21(1990 Micr), pages 205-286.
    14. Catherine C. de Fontenay & Joshua S. Gans, 2005. "Vertical Integration in the Presence of Upstream Competition," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 36(3), pages 544-572, Autumn.
    15. Ornella Tarola & Jean Gabszewicz & Didier Laussel, 2011. "To Acquire, or To Compete? An Entry Dilemma," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, vol. 11(4), pages 369-383, December.
    16. Liu, Bih Jane, 2011. "MNEs and Local Linkages: Evidence from Taiwanese Affiliates," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(4), pages 633-647, April.
    17. Salvador Barrios & Holger Görg & Eric Strobl, 2016. "Spillovers through backward linkages from multinationals: Measurement matters!," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: MULTINATIONAL ENTERPRISES AND HOST COUNTRY DEVELOPMENT, chapter 11, pages 213-226, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    18. J. Peter Neary, 2007. "Cross-Border Mergers as Instruments of Comparative Advantage," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 74(4), pages 1229-1257.
    19. Anil Arya & Brian Mittendorf, 2011. "Disclosure standards for vertical contracts," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 42(3), pages 595-617, September.
    20. Blalock, Garrick & Gertler, Paul J., 2008. "Welfare gains from Foreign Direct Investment through technology transfer to local suppliers," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(2), pages 402-421, March.
    21. Thomas Müller, 2007. "Analyzing Modes of Foreign Entry: Greenfield Investment versus Acquisition," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 15(1), pages 93-111, February.
    22. Brander, James A. & Lewis, Tracy R., 1986. "Oligopoly and Financial Structure: The Limited Liability Effect," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(5), pages 956-970, December.
    23. Mattoo, Aaditya & Olarreaga, Marcelo & Saggi, Kamal, 2004. "Mode of foreign entry, technology transfer, and FDI policy," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 75(1), pages 95-111, October.
    24. Lommerud, Kjell Erik & Straume, Odd Rune & Sorgard, Lars, 2005. "Downstream merger with upstream market power," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 49(3), pages 717-743, April.
    25. Chrysovalantou Milliou & Apostolis Pavlou, 2013. "Upstream Mergers, Downstream Competition, and R&D Investments," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(4), pages 787-809, December.
    26. Ivarsson, Inge & Alvstam, Claes Goran, 2005. "Technology transfer from TNCs to local suppliers in developing countries: A study of AB Volvo's truck and bus plants in Brazil, China, India, and Mexico," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 33(8), pages 1325-1344, August.
    27. Chrysovalantou Milliou, 2014. "Location for Foreign Direct Investment in Vertically Related Markets," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(2), pages 326-341, May.
    28. G.F. Mathewson & R.A. Winter, 1984. "An Economic Theory of Vertical Restraints," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 15(1), pages 27-38, Spring.
    29. Inderst, Roman & Wey, Christian, 2003. "Bargaining, Mergers, and Technology Choice in Bilaterally Oligopolistic Industries," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 34(1), pages 1-19, Spring.
    30. Miklós-Thal, Jeanine & Rey, Patrick & Vergé, Thibaud, 2010. "Vertical relations," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 345-349, July.
    31. Stephen W. Salant & Sheldon Switzer & Robert J. Reynolds, 1983. "Losses From Horizontal Merger: The Effects of an Exogenous Change in Industry Structure on Cournot-Nash Equilibrium," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 98(2), pages 185-199.
    32. Céline Bonnet & Pierre Dubois, 2010. "Inference on vertical contracts between manufacturers and retailers allowing for nonlinear pricing and resale price maintenance," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 41(1), pages 139-164, March.
    33. Milliou, Chrysovalantou & Petrakis, Emmanuel, 2007. "Upstream horizontal mergers, vertical contracts, and bargaining," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 25(5), pages 963-987, October.
    34. Carluccio, Juan & Fally, Thibault, 2013. "Foreign entry and spillovers with technological incompatibilities in the supply chain," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 90(1), pages 123-135.
    35. Ilya Segal, 1999. "Contracting with Externalities," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 114(2), pages 337-388.
    36. Stéphane Caprice, 2006. "Multilateral Vertical Contracting with an Alternative Supply: The Welfare Effects of a Ban on Price Discrimination," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 28(1), pages 63-80, February.
    37. Beata Smarzynska Javorcik, 2004. "Does Foreign Direct Investment Increase the Productivity of Domestic Firms? In Search of Spillovers Through Backward Linkages," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(3), pages 605-627, June.
    38. Salvatore Piccolo & Jeanine Miklós-Thal, 2012. "Colluding through suppliers," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 43(3), pages 492-513, September.
    39. Dhillon, Amrita & Petrakis, Emmanuel, 2002. "A generalised wage rigidity result," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 285-311, March.
    40. Michael L. Katz, 1991. "Game-Playing Agents: Unobservable Contracts as Precommitments," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 22(3), pages 307-328, Autumn.
    41. Henrick Horn & Asher Wolinsky, 1988. "Bilateral Monopolies and Incentives for Merger," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 19(3), pages 408-419, Autumn.
    42. Qiu, Larry D. & Zhou, Wen, 2006. "International mergers: Incentives and welfare," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 38-58, January.
    43. Martin, Stephen & Normann, Hans-Theo & Snyder, Christopher M, 2001. "Vertical Foreclosure in Experimental Markets," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 32(3), pages 466-496, Autumn.
    44. Beladi, Hamid & Chakrabarti, Avik & Marjit, Sugata, 2013. "Cross-border mergers in vertically related industries," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 97-108.
    45. Sanford J. Grossman & Oliver D. Hart, 1980. "Takeover Bids, the Free-Rider Problem, and the Theory of the Corporation," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 11(1), pages 42-64, Spring.
    46. Eicher, Theo & Kang, Jong Woo, 2005. "Trade, foreign direct investment or acquisition: Optimal entry modes for multinationals," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(1), pages 207-228, June.
    47. Qiu, Larry D. & Tao, Zhigang, 2001. "Export, foreign direct investment, and local content requirement," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(1), pages 101-125, October.
    48. Giroud, Axèle, 2007. "MNEs vertical linkages: The experience of Vietnam after Malaysia," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 159-176, April.
    49. Patrick Rey & Thibaud Vergé, 2004. "Bilateral Control with Vertical Contracts," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 35(4), pages 728-746, Winter.
    50. Horn, Henrik & Persson, Lars, 2001. "The equilibrium ownership of an international oligopoly," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(2), pages 307-333, April.
    51. Jacques Cremer & Michael H. Riordan, 1987. "On Governing Multilateral Transactions with Bilateral Contracts," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 18(3), pages 436-451, Autumn.
    52. Emanuele Bacchiega & Olivier Bonroy & Emmanuel Petrakis, 2018. "Contract contingency in vertically related markets," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 27(4), pages 772-791, October.
    53. Carlos Noton & Andrés Elberg, 2018. "Are Supermarkets Squeezing Small Suppliers? Evidence from Negotiated Wholesale Prices," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 128(610), pages 1304-1330, May.
    54. Pack, Howard & Saggi, Kamal, 2001. "Vertical technology transfer via international outsourcing," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(2), pages 389-415, August.
    55. João Montez, 2015. "Controlling opportunism in vertical contracting when production precedes sales," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 46(3), pages 650-670, September.
    56. McAfee, R Preston & Schwartz, Marius, 1994. "Opportunism in Multilateral Vertical Contracting: Nondiscrimination, Exclusivity, and Uniformity," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(1), pages 210-230, March.
    57. Lin, Ping & Saggi, Kamal, 2007. "Multinational firms, exclusivity, and backward linkages," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 71(1), pages 206-220, March.
    58. Emanuele Bacchiega & Olivier Bonroy & Emmanuel Petrakis, 2018. "Contract contingency in vertically related markets," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 27(4), pages 772-791, October.
    59. Inderst, Roman, 2010. "Models of vertical market relations," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 341-344, July.
    60. Catherine C. Fontenay & Joshua S. Gans, 2014. "Bilateral Bargaining with Externalities," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 62(4), pages 756-788, December.
    61. Jie Ma, 2013. "Market Size, Local Sourcing and Policy Competition for Foreign Direct Investment," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(5), pages 984-995, November.
    62. Marx, Leslie M. & Shaffer, Greg, 2004. "Opportunism and menus of two-part tariffs," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 22(10), pages 1399-1414, December.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Chrysovalantou Milliou, 2014. "Location for Foreign Direct Investment in Vertically Related Markets," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(2), pages 326-341, May.
    2. Maria Alipranti & Emmanuel Petrakis, 2022. "Upstream market structure and the timing of technology adoption," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 43(5), pages 1298-1310, July.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Chrysovalantou Milliou & Apostolis Pavlou, 2014. "Foreign Direct Investment Modes and Local Backward Linkages," CESifo Working Paper Series 4623, CESifo.
    2. Chrysovalantou Milliou, 2014. "Location for Foreign Direct Investment in Vertically Related Markets," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(2), pages 326-341, May.
    3. Bakaouka, Elpiniki & Milliou, Chrysovalantou, 2018. "Vertical licensing, input pricing, and entry," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 66-96.
    4. Milliou, Chrysovalantou & Petrakis, Emmanuel, 2007. "Upstream horizontal mergers, vertical contracts, and bargaining," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 25(5), pages 963-987, October.
    5. Alipranti, Maria & Petrakis, Emmanuel & Skartados, Panagiotis, 2022. "On the pro-competitive effects of passive partial backward ownership," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 213(C).
    6. Eguia, Jon X. & Llorente-Saguer, Aniol & Morton, Rebecca & Nicolò, Antonio, 2018. "Equilibrium selection in sequential games with imperfect information," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 109(C), pages 465-483.
    7. Emanuele Bacchiega & Olivier Bonroy & Emmanuel Petrakis, 2018. "Contract contingency in vertically related markets," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 27(4), pages 772-791, October.
    8. Lømo, Teis Lunde, 2015. "Risk sharing mitigates opportunism in vertical contracting," Working Papers in Economics 10/15, University of Bergen, Department of Economics.
    9. Alipranti, Maria & Milliou, Chrysovalantou & Petrakis, Emmanuel, 2014. "Price vs. quantity competition in a vertically related market," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 124(1), pages 122-126.
    10. Nocke, Volker & Rey, Patrick, 2018. "Exclusive dealing and vertical integration in interlocking relationships," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 177(C), pages 183-221.
    11. Emanuele Bacchiega & Olivier Bonroy & Emmanuel Petrakis, 2018. "Contract contingency in vertically related markets," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 27(4), pages 772-791, October.
    12. Papadopoulos, Konstantinos G. & Petrakis, Emmanuel & Skartados, Panagiotis, 2021. "The ambiguous competitive effects of passive partial forward integration," UC3M Working papers. Economics 33354, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Departamento de Economía.
    13. Emanuele Bacchiega & Olivier Bonroy & Emmanuel Petrakis, 2018. "Contract contingency in vertically related markets," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 27(4), pages 772-791, October.
    14. Ioannis Pinopoulos, 2017. "Input price discrimination, two-part tariff contracts and bargaining," Discussion Paper Series 2017_01, Department of Economics, University of Macedonia, revised Jan 2017.
    15. Petrakis, Emmanuel & Skartados, Panagiotis, 2022. "Disclosure regime of contract terms and bargaining in vertical markets," UC3M Working papers. Economics 34144, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Departamento de Economía.
    16. Michael Polemis & Konstantinos Eleftheriou, 2018. "To Regulate Or To Deregulate? The Role Of Downstream Competition In Upstream Monopoly Vertically Linked Markets," Bulletin of Economic Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 70(1), pages 51-63, January.
    17. Symeonidis, George, 2010. "Downstream merger and welfare in a bilateral oligopoly," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 230-243, May.
    18. Ioannis N. Pinopoulos, 2020. "Upstream horizontal mergers involving a vertically integrated firm," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 130(1), pages 67-83, June.
    19. Allain, Marie-Laure & Chambolle, Claire, 2011. "Anti-competitive effects of resale-below-cost laws," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 373-385, July.
    20. Chrysovalantou Milliou & Joel Sandonis, 2018. "Manufacturer Mergers and Product Variety in Vertically Related Markets," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, vol. 18(1), pages 1-24, March.

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wly:canjec:v:53:y:2020:i:1:p:284-320. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://doi.org/10.1111/(ISSN)1540-5982 .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Wiley Content Delivery (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://doi.org/10.1111/(ISSN)1540-5982 .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.