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Foreign Direct Investment Modes and Local Backward Linkages

  • Chrysovalantou Milliou
  • Apostolis Pavlou

We study a multinational enterprise’s (MNE) choice of foreign direct investment (FDI) mode in a vertically related market with local input sourcing. We show that the vertical structure of the market and its features play a crucial role for the MNE.s decision: backward linkages, enhanced upstream bargaining power, use of non-linear contracts, and interim unobservability of contract terms favor cross-border acquisition relative to greenfield investment. We also show that while a cross-border acquisition reduces welfare, greenfield investment can be welfare-improving. These results suggest that policy should distinguish among FDI modes as well as among markets with more or less dependence on backward linkages.

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Paper provided by CESifo Group Munich in its series CESifo Working Paper Series with number 4623.

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Date of creation: 2014
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Handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_4623
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  1. J. Peter Neary, 2007. "Cross-Border Mergers as Instruments of Comparative Advantage," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 74(4), pages 1229-1257.
  2. Milliou, Chrysovalantou & Petrakis, Emmanuel, 2007. "Upstream horizontal mergers, vertical contracts, and bargaining," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 25(5), pages 963-987, October.
  3. Horn, Henrik & Persson, Lars, 1999. "The Equilibrium Ownership of an International Oligopoly," CEPR Discussion Papers 2302, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  4. Bonnet, Céline & Dubois, Pierre, 2009. "Inference on Vertical Contracts between Manufacturers and Retailers Allowing for Nonlinear Pricing and Resale Price Maintenance," IDEI Working Papers 583, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
  5. Anil Arya & Brian Mittendorf, 2011. "Disclosure standards for vertical contracts," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 42(3), pages 595-617, 09.
  6. Markusen, James R. & Venables, Anthony J., 1999. "Foreign direct investment as a catalyst for industrial development," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 335-356, February.
  7. Jean J. GABSZEWICZ & Didier, LAUSSEL & Ornella, TAROLLA, 2008. "To acquire or to compete ? An entry dilemna," Discussion Papers (ECON - Département des Sciences Economiques) 2008019, Université catholique de Louvain, Département des Sciences Economiques.
  8. Lin, Ping & Saggi, Kamal, 2007. "Multinational firms, exclusivity, and backward linkages," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 71(1), pages 206-220, March.
  9. Barrios, Salvador & Görg, Holger & Strobl, Eric, 2009. "Spillovers Through Backward Linkages from Multinationals: Measurement Matters!," IZA Discussion Papers 4477, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  10. Carluccio, Juan & Fally, Thibault, 2010. "Foreign Entry and Spillovers with Technological Incompatibilities in the Supply Chain," CEPR Discussion Papers 7866, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  11. Stéphane Caprice, 2006. "Multilateral Vertical Contracting with an Alternative Supply: The Welfare Effects of a Ban on Price Discrimination," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer, vol. 28(1), pages 63-80, 02.
  12. Eicher, Theo & Kang, Jong Woo, 2005. "Trade, foreign direct investment or acquisition: Optimal entry modes for multinationals," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(1), pages 207-228, June.
  13. Qiu, Larry D. & Tao, Zhigang, 2001. "Export, foreign direct investment, and local content requirement," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(1), pages 101-125, October.
  14. Salvatore Piccolo, 2009. "Colluding through Suppliers," CSEF Working Papers 224, Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy, revised 08 Apr 2010.
  15. Jordaan, Jacob A., 2011. "FDI, Local Sourcing, and Supportive Linkages with Domestic Suppliers: The Case of Monterrey, Mexico," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(4), pages 620-632, April.
  16. Chrysovalantou Milliou, 2013. "Location of Foreign Direct Investment in Vertically Related Markets," CESifo Working Paper Series 4117, CESifo Group Munich.
  17. Bjorvatn, Kjetil, 2004. "Economic integration and the profitability of cross-border mergers and acquisitions," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 48(6), pages 1211-1226, December.
  18. Horn, H. & Wolinsky, A., 1988. "Bilateral Monopolies And Incentives For Merger," Papers 410, Stockholm - International Economic Studies.
  19. Villas-Boas, Sofia B., 2006. "Vertical relationships between manufacturers and retailers: inference with limited data," Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley, Working Paper Series qt0z26d2v9, Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley.
  20. Giroud, Axèle, 2007. "MNEs vertical linkages: The experience of Vietnam after Malaysia," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 159-176, April.
  21. Howard Smith & John Thanassoulis, 2008. "Bargaining Between Retailers and their Suppliers," Economics Series Working Papers 388, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  22. Pack, Howard & Saggi, Kamal, 2001. "Vertical technology transfer via international outsourcing," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(2), pages 389-415, August.
  23. Thomas Müller, 2007. "Analyzing Modes of Foreign Entry: Greenfield Investment versus Acquisition," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 15(1), pages 93-111, 02.
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