Vertical Separation with Private Contracts
We consider a manufacturer's incentive to sell through an independent retailer, rather than directly to final consumers, when contracts with retailers cannot be observed by competitors. If retailers conjecture that identical competing manufacturers always offer identical contracts (symmetry beliefs), vertical separation by all manufacturers is an equilibrium, and it results in higher consumers' prices and manufacturers' profits. Even with private contracts, vertically separated manufacturers reduce competition by inducing less aggressive behaviour by retailers in the final market. We characterize a condition for manufacturers' profits to be higher with private than with public contracts. Our results hold both with price and with quantity competition, and do not hinge on retailers' beliefs being perfectly symmetric.
|Date of creation:||26 Apr 2010|
|Date of revision:||09 Jul 2011|
|Publication status:||Published in Economic Journal, 2012, Vol. 122, 173-207.|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: I-80126 Napoli|
Phone: +39 081 - 675372
Fax: +39 081 - 675372
Web page: http://www.csef.it/
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Patrick Rey & Joseph Stiglitz, 1995.
"The Role of Exclusive Territories in Producers' Competition,"
RAND Journal of Economics,
The RAND Corporation, vol. 26(3), pages 431-451, Autumn.
- Patrick Rey & Joseph Stiglitz, 1994. "The Role of Exclusive Territories in Producers' Competition," NBER Working Papers 4618, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Rey, Patrick & Vergé, Thibaud, 2003.
"Bilateral Control with Vertical Contracts,"
IDEI Working Papers
202, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
- Patrick Rey & Thibaud Verge, 2002. "Bilateral Control with Vertical Contracts," The Centre for Market and Public Organisation 02/048, Department of Economics, University of Bristol, UK.
- Patrick Rey & Thibaud Vergé, 2003. "Bilateral Control with Vertical Contracts," Industrial Organization 0309005, EconWPA.
- Caillaud, Bernard & Jullien, B & Picard, P, 1995.
"Competing Vertical Structures: Precommitment and Renegotiation,"
Econometric Society, vol. 63(3), pages 621-646, May.
- Caillaud Bernard & Jullien Bruno & Picard Pierre, 1991. "Competing vertical structures : precommitment and renegotiation," CEPREMAP Working Papers (Couverture Orange) 9125, CEPREMAP.
- Caillaud, Bernard & Rey, Patrick, 1995.
"Strategic aspects of vertical delegation,"
European Economic Review,
Elsevier, vol. 39(3-4), pages 421-431, April.
- Henrick Horn & Asher Wolinsky, 1988.
"Bilateral Monopolies and Incentives for Merger,"
RAND Journal of Economics,
The RAND Corporation, vol. 19(3), pages 408-419, Autumn.
- Mas-Colell, Andreu & Whinston, Michael D. & Green, Jerry R., 1995. "Microeconomic Theory," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195102680.
- Levent Koçkesen, 2007. "Unobservable Contracts as Precommitments," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 31(3), pages 539-552, June.
- Lucas, Robert Jr., 1972. "Expectations and the neutrality of money," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 4(2), pages 103-124, April.
- Lucy White, 2007. "Foreclosure with Incomplete Information," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 16(2), pages 507-535, 06.
- Steven D. Sklivas, 1987. "The Strategic Choice of Managerial Incentives," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 18(3), pages 452-458, Autumn.
- Anne T. Coughlan & Birger Wernerfelt, 1989. "On Credible Delegation by Oligopolists: A Discussion of Distribution Channel Management," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 35(2), pages 226-239, February.
- Chaim Fershtman & Kenneth L Judd, 1984.
"Equilibrium Incentives in Oligopoly,"
642, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
- Lafontaine, F. & Slade, M., 1996.
"Retail Contracting: Theory and Practice,"
96b09, Universite Aix-Marseille III.
- Laffont, Jean-Jacques & Martimort, David, 1998.
"Mechanism Design with Collusion and Correlation,"
IDEI Working Papers
81, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
- Katz, Michael L., 1991.
"Game-Playing Agents: Unobservable Contracts as Precommitments,"
Department of Economics, Working Paper Series
qt79b870w0, Department of Economics, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
- Michael L. Katz, 1991. "Game-Playing Agents: Unobservable Contracts as Precommitments," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 22(3), pages 307-328, Autumn.
- Michael L. Katz., 1991. "Game-Playing Agents: Unobservable Contracts as Precommitments," Economics Working Papers 91-172, University of California at Berkeley.
- Bonanno, Giacomo & Vickers, John, 1988. "Vertical Separation," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(3), pages 257-265, March.
- Daniel P. O'Brien & Greg Shaffer, 1992. "Vertical Control with Bilateral Contracts," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 23(3), pages 299-308, Autumn.
- McAfee, R Preston & Schwartz, Marius, 1994. "Opportunism in Multilateral Vertical Contracting: Nondiscrimination, Exclusivity, and Uniformity," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(1), pages 210-230, March.
- Vickers, John, 1985. "Delegation and the Theory of the Firm," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 95(380a), pages 138-147, Supplemen.
- Jacques Cremer & Michael H. Riordan, 1987. "On Governing Multilateral Transactions with Bilateral Contracts," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 18(3), pages 436-451, Autumn.
- Drew Fudenberg & Jean Tirole, 1991. "Game Theory," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262061414, September.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:sef:csefwp:251. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Lia Ambrosio)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.