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The Cost of Being Nonwhite and the Added Cost of Being Female in The South and Southwest

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  • Patricia E. Gaynor

    (Appalachian State University)

  • Garey C. Durden

    (Appalachian State University)

Abstract

In this paper we use CPS data from 1990 to investigate earnings differences between white males and others in the South and Southwest. Particular emphasis is placed on measuring the added cost of being female-that is, the amount by which earnings differentials for white, black, and Mexican-American females exceed those of black males. We find that the earnings of black males, after adjustment for labor market differences, still lag behind those of white males. We find a substantial extra cost of "femaleness" in that unexplained earnings differentials for females are greater than those for black males. For white females the unexplained differential is 44.9 percent, 89.3 percent, and 51.2 percent greater for white, black, and Mexican-American females than for black males.

Suggested Citation

  • Patricia E. Gaynor & Garey C. Durden, 1997. "The Cost of Being Nonwhite and the Added Cost of Being Female in The South and Southwest," The Review of Regional Studies, Southern Regional Science Association, vol. 27(2), pages 195-209, Fall.
  • Handle: RePEc:rre:publsh:v:27:y:1997:i:2:p:195-209
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Francine D. Blau & Andrea H. Beller, 1988. "Trends in Earnings Differentials by Gender, 1971–1981," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 41(4), pages 513-529, July.
    2. Randall K. Filer, 1985. "Male-Female Wage Differences: The Importance of Compensating Differentials," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 38(3), pages 426-437, April.
    3. Mary Corcoran & Greg J. Duncan, 1979. "Work History, Labor Force Attachment, and Earnings Differences between the Races and Sexes," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 14(1), pages 3-20.
    4. Oaxaca, Ronald, 1973. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 693-709, October.
    5. Alan S. Blinder, 1973. "Wage Discrimination: Reduced Form and Structural Estimates," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 8(4), pages 436-455.
    6. Leonard A. Carlson & Caroline Swartz, 1988. "The Earnings of Women and Ethnic Minorities, 1959–1979," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 41(4), pages 530-546, July.
    7. Reimers, Cordelia W, 1983. "Labor Market Discrimination against Hispanic and Black Men," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 65(4), pages 570-579, November.
    8. Nan L. Maxwell, 1994. "The Effect on Black-White Wage Differences of Differences in the Quantity and Quality of Education," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 47(2), pages 249-264, January.
    9. James D. Gwartney & James E. Long, 1978. "The Relative Earnings of Blacks and other Minorities," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 31(3), pages 336-346, April.
    10. William A. Darity Jr., 1982. "The Human Capital Approach to Black-White Earnings Inequality: Some Unsettled Questions," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 17(1), pages 72-93.
    11. David Neumark, 1988. "Employers' Discriminatory Behavior and the Estimation of Wage Discrimination," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 23(3), pages 279-295.
    12. James F. Ragan & Carol Horton Tremblay, 1988. "Testing for Employee Discrimination by Race and Sex," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 23(1), pages 123-137.
    13. William Darity, 1980. "Illusions of black economic progress," The Review of Black Political Economy, Springer;National Economic Association, vol. 10(2), pages 153-168, December.
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    Cited by:

    1. Ewing, Bradley T. & Levernier, William, 2000. "An Analysis of Rural-Urban Differences in Average Family Income: An Application of the Oaxaca and Cotton-Neumark Decomposition Technique," The Review of Regional Studies, Southern Regional Science Association, vol. 30(3), pages 299-314, Winter.

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