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Location or Hukou: What Most Limits Fertility of Urban Women in China?

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  • Yun Liang and John Gibson

Abstract

China's fertility rate is below replacement level. The government is attempting to increase this rate by relaxing the one-child policy. China faces a possible tradeoff because further urbanization is needed to raise incomes but may reduce future fertility. We decompose China's rural–urban fertility gaps using both de facto and de jure criteria for defining the urban population. The fertility-depressing effects of holding urban hukou are more than three times larger than effects of urban residence. Less of the rural–urban fertility gap by hukou status is due to differences in characteristics than is the case for the fertility gap by place of residence.

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  • Yun Liang and John Gibson, "undated". "Location or Hukou: What Most Limits Fertility of Urban Women in China?," Asia and the Pacific Policy Studies 201738, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
  • Handle: RePEc:een:appswp:201738
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    Cited by:

    1. de Bruin, Anne & Liu, Na, 2020. "The urbanization-household gender inequality nexus: Evidence from time allocation in China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 60(C).
    2. Deng, Xin & Yu, Mingzhe, 2021. "Does the marginal child increase household debt? – Evidence from the new fertility policy in China," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 77(C).

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    fertility; hukou; urbanization; China;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth

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