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The Earnings of Women and Ethnic Minorities, 1959–1979

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  • Leonard A. Carlson
  • Caroline Swartz

Abstract

Using 1980 Census data, the authors present estimates of annual earnings equations for twelve ethnic and racial groups, by gender, for 1979, and compare their results with an earlier study's estimates for 1959 and 1969. All minority men and women except Asian Indian and Japanese men earned less than white men in the years for which data were available. The earnings gap for most groups of men and women, however, declined over those years, and the portion of that gap that might be assignable to discrimination (the unexplained “residual†) also declined. A notable exception was white women, whose mean earnings relative to white men's changed little between 1969 and 1979, even when corrected for differences in productive characteristics.

Suggested Citation

  • Leonard A. Carlson & Caroline Swartz, 1988. "The Earnings of Women and Ethnic Minorities, 1959–1979," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 41(4), pages 530-546, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:sae:ilrrev:v:41:y:1988:i:4:p:530-546
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    Cited by:

    1. Stephen J. Trejo, 2003. "Intergenerational Progress of Mexican-Origin Workers in the U.S. Labor Market," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 38(3).
    2. David Grusky & Thomas DiPrete, 1990. "Recent trends in the process of stratification," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 27(4), pages 617-637, November.
    3. D. Mar, 2000. "Four decades of Asian American women's earnings: Japanese, Chinese, and Filipino American women's earnings 1960–1990," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 18(2), pages 228-237, April.
    4. Marlene Kim, 2013. "Race and ethnicity in the workplace," Chapters, in: Deborah M. Figart & Tonia L. Warnecke (ed.), Handbook of Research on Gender and Economic Life, chapter 14, pages 218-235, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    5. Emily Hoffnar & Michael Greene, 1995. "The Effect Of Relative Group Size On The Employment Prospects Of African-American And White Males," The Review of Regional Studies, Southern Regional Science Association, vol. 25(2), pages 207-218, Fall.
    6. Christopher Dougherty, 2006. "The Marriage Earnings Premium as a Distributed Fixed Effect," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 41(2).
    7. Christopher Dougherty, 2005. "Why Are the Returns to Schooling Higher for Women than for Men?," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 40(4), pages 969-988.
    8. Bruce Wydick, 2002. "Affirmative Action In College Admissions: Examining Labor Market Effects Of Four Alternative Policies," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 20(1), pages 12-24, January.
    9. Ashraf El-Araby Aly & James Ragan, 2010. "Arab immigrants in the United States: how and why do returns to education vary by country of origin?," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 23(2), pages 519-538, March.
    10. Dmitry Kabrelyan, 2000. "A Comparison of the Earnings of Immigrants in Canada, United States, Australia and Germany," LIS Working papers 241, LIS Cross-National Data Center in Luxembourg.
    11. Patricia E. Gaynor & Garey C. Durden, 1997. "The Cost of Being Nonwhite and the Added Cost of Being Female in The South and Southwest," The Review of Regional Studies, Southern Regional Science Association, vol. 27(2), pages 195-209, Fall.

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