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Currency and Checking Deposits as Means of Payment


  • Yiting Li

    (National Taiwan University)


We consider a record keeping cost to distinguish checking deposits from currency in a model where means-of-payment decisions and liquidity of assets are modelled explicitly. An equilibrium exists where checks are used only in big transactions while cash is used in all transactions. Higher inflation or lower reserve requirements raise the deposit interest rate, lower the currency deposit ratio and thereby increase the money multiplier and money supply. Monetary policy has differential impacts on the terms of trade in transactions using different means of payment. During high inflation, individuals economize on the holdings of nominal assets and use checks more frequently, implying higher liquidity of M1. (Copyright: Elsevier)

Suggested Citation

  • Yiting Li, 2011. "Currency and Checking Deposits as Means of Payment," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 14(2), pages 403-417, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:red:issued:09-110
    DOI: 10.1016/

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Geoffrey R. Gerdes, 2008. "Recent payment trends in the United States," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), issue Oct, pages 75-106.
    2. Campbell, John Y. (ed.), 2008. "Asset Prices and Monetary Policy," National Bureau of Economic Research Books, University of Chicago Press, edition 0, number 9780226092119.
    3. repec:fip:fedgws:y:2008:i:oct:p:a75-a106:n:v.94 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Benjamin Lester & Andrew Postlewaite & Randall Wright, 2008. "Information, Liquidity and Asset Prices," PIER Working Paper Archive 08-039, Penn Institute for Economic Research, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania.
    5. John Y. Campbell, 2008. "Asset Prices and Monetary Policy," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number camp06-1, January.
    6. Humphrey, David B. & Keppler, Robert H. & Montes-Negret, Fernando, 1997. "Cost recovery and pricing of payment services," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1833, The World Bank.
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    Cited by:

    1. Berentsen, Aleksander & Huber, Samuel & Marchesiani, Alessandro, 2016. "The societal benefit of a financial transaction tax," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 89(C), pages 303-323.
    2. Aleksander Berentsen & Guido Menzio & Randall Wright, 2011. "Inflation and Unemployment in the Long Run," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 101(1), pages 371-398, February.
    3. Pedro Gomis‐Porqueras & Daniel Sanches, 2013. "Optimal Monetary Policy in a Model of Money and Credit," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 45(4), pages 701-730, June.
    4. repec:eee:quaeco:v:65:y:2017:i:c:p:378-387 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Lee, Manjong, 2014. "Constrained or unconstrained price for debit card payment?," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 53-65.
    6. Jonathan Chiu & Tsz-Nga Wong, 2015. "On the Essentiality of E-Money," Staff Working Papers 15-43, Bank of Canada.
    7. Pidong Huang & Young Sik Kim & Manjong Lee, 2014. "Optimal Allocation of Social Cost for Electronic Payment System: A Ramsey Approach," Discussion Paper Series 1402, Institute of Economic Research, Korea University.

    More about this item


    Currency; Deposits; Record keeping cost; Inflation; Reserve requirements;

    JEL classification:

    • E40 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - General
    • E43 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Interest Rates: Determination, Term Structure, and Effects
    • E51 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Money Supply; Credit; Money Multipliers
    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy


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