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Preparing Women of Substance? Education, Training, and Labor Market Outcomes for Women in Pakistan

Author

Listed:
  • Monazza Aslam

    () (Institute of Education, University of London)

  • Shenila Rawal

    () (Institute of Education, University of London)

Abstract

This paper investigates the economic (i.e., labor market) outcomes of “training” for individuals in Pakistan. The labor market benefits of general education have been relatively well explored in the literature and specifically in Pakistan. They point to the benefits of education accruing both from education or skills that promote a person’s entry into more lucrative occupations and from raising earnings within any given occupation. This research delves into another angle by investigating the role, if any, of acquired “training“—technical, vocational, apprenticeship, or on-the-job—and its impact through both channels ofeffect on economic wellbeing. This is done using data from a unique, purpose-designed survey of more than 1,000 households in Pakistan, collected in 2007. Multinomial logit estimates of occupational attainment show how training determines occupational choice. In addition, we estimate the returns to schooling and to training separately for men and women. The results show that, while training significantlyimproves women’s chances of entering self-employment and wage work (as well as the more “lucrative” occupations), only wage-working women benefit from improved earnings through the training they have acquired. On the other hand, men who have acquired skills this way benefit through an improved probability of being self-employed and earning higher returns within that occupation.

Suggested Citation

  • Monazza Aslam & Shenila Rawal, 2013. "Preparing Women of Substance? Education, Training, and Labor Market Outcomes for Women in Pakistan," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 18(Special E), pages 93-128, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:lje:journl:v:18:y:2013:i:sp:p:93-128
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Monazza Aslam & Faisal Bari & Geeta Kingdon, 2012. "Returns to schooling, ability and cognitive skills in Pakistan," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(2), pages 139-173, May.
    2. Hugo Ñopo & Miguel Robles & Jaime Saavedra, 2008. "Occupational training to reduce gender segregation: The impacts of ProJoven," Revista Economía, Fondo Editorial - Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, issue 62, pages 33-54.
    3. Anna Vignoles & Fernando Galindo-Rueda & Leon Feinstein, 2004. "The Labour Market Impact of Adult Education and Training: A Cohort Analysis," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 51(2), pages 266-280, May.
    4. Orazio Attanasio & Adriana Kugler & Costas Meghir, 2008. "Training Disadvantaged Youth in Latin America: Evidence from a Randomized Trial," NBER Working Papers 13931, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Dearden, Lorraine, et al, 2002. "The Returns to Academic and Vocational Qualifications in Britain," Bulletin of Economic Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 54(3), pages 249-274, July.
    6. Dirk Krueger & Krishna B. Kumar, 2004. "Skill-Specific rather than General Education: A Reason for US--Europe Growth Differences?," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 9(2), pages 167-207, June.
    7. David Newhouse & Daniel Suryadarma, 2011. "The Value of Vocational Education: High School Type and Labor Market Outcomes in Indonesia," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 25(2), pages 296-322, May.
    8. Tazeen Fasih, 2008. "Linking Education Policy to Labor Market Outcomes," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6407, April.
    9. Charley Greenwood & Andrew Jenkins & Anna Vignoles, 2007. "The Returns to Qualifications in England: Updating the Evidence Base on Level 2 and Level 3 Vocational Qualifications," CEE Discussion Papers 0089, Centre for the Economics of Education, LSE.
    10. Monazza Aslam, 2009. "Education Gender Gaps in Pakistan: Is the Labor Market to Blame?," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 57(4), pages 747-784, July.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Returns to schooling; vocational training; apprenticeship training; occupational choice; Pakistan.;

    JEL classification:

    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity

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