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Occupational training to reduce gender segregation: The impacts of ProJoven


  • Hugo Ñopo

    () (Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo)

  • Miguel Robles


  • Jaime Saavedra

    (Banco Mundial)


This paper illustrates the process of program evaluation for ProJoven, the Peruvian youth labor training program. The program provides beneficiaries with basic three-month training in lowskill occupations and with internship opportunities. ProJoven’s design promotes gender equality by encouraging female participation in training for traditionally male-dominated occupations and by providing subsidies so mothers with children can participate. Complementing detailed fieldwork in search of the appropriate control group, the econometric work implements a two-stage matching procedure that includes propensity scores (on the first stage), and gender and labor income (on the second one). The matching on gender allows identification of differentiated program impacts on men and women. The matching on income attacks the problem of Ashenfelter’s Dips. The evaluation shows substantial differences in ProJoven’s impact for men and women. Eighteen months after participation in the program, employment rates for women improved by about 15% (while employment for men reduced by 11%), gender occupational segregation reduced by 30% and women’s labor income improved by 93% (while men’s earnings increased by 11%). On the other hand, the cost of the promotion of gender equality represented only 1.5% of ProJoven’s total budget. These results suggest that labor training programs that promote equal gender participation have disproportionately positive effects on outcomes for women trainees in a labor market with substantial gender differences.

Suggested Citation

  • Hugo Ñopo & Miguel Robles & Jaime Saavedra, 2008. "Occupational training to reduce gender segregation: The impacts of ProJoven," Revista Economía, Fondo Editorial - Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, issue 62, pages 33-54.
  • Handle: RePEc:pcp:pucrev:y:2008:i:62:p:33-54

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Ashenfelter, Orley C, 1978. "Estimating the Effect of Training Programs on Earnings," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 60(1), pages 47-57, February.
    2. Lopez-Acevedo, Gladys, 2003. "Wages and productivity in Mexican manufacturing," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2964, The World Bank.
    3. James J. Heckman & Hidehiko Ichimura & Petra E. Todd, 1997. "Matching As An Econometric Evaluation Estimator: Evidence from Evaluating a Job Training Programme," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 64(4), pages 605-654.
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    Cited by:

    1. Monazza Aslam & Shenila Rawal, 2013. "Preparing Women of Substance? Education, Training, and Labor Market Outcomes for Women in Pakistan," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 18(Special E), pages 93-128, September.
    2. Mayra Buvinic & Megan O’Donnell, 2017. "Gender Matters in Economic Empowerment Interventions: A Research Review," Working Papers id:11926, eSocialSciences.
    3. Ayesha Khan & Mupuwaliywa Mupuwaliywa, 2015. "Providing Out-of-School Girls with Skills," World Bank Other Operational Studies 23868, The World Bank.
    4. Shubha Chakravarty & Sarah Haddock & Ioana Botea, 2016. "Providing Out-of-School Adolescent Girls with Skills," World Bank Other Operational Studies 24571, The World Bank.
    5. Todd, Petra E., 2012. "Effectiveness of interventions aimed at improving women's employability and quality of work : a critical review," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6189, The World Bank.
    6. World Bank, 2012. "A Gender (R)evolution in the Making? Expanding Women's Economic Opportunities in Central America : A Decade in Review," World Bank Other Operational Studies 12468, The World Bank.
    7. Kluve, Jochen., 2016. "A review of the effectiveness of active labour market programmes with a focus on Latin America and the Caribbean," ILO Working Papers 994901193402676, International Labour Organization.


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