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On the cultural basis of gender differences in negotiation

Author

Listed:
  • Steffen Andersen

    (Copenhagen Business School
    CPER)

  • Seda Ertac

    (Koc University)

  • Uri Gneezy

    (University of California, San Diego)

  • John A. List

    (University of Chicago
    NBER)

  • Sandra Maximiano

    (University of Lisbon)

Abstract

We study how culture and social structure influence bargaining behavior across gender, by exploring the negotiation culture in matrilineal and patriarchal societies using data from a laboratory experiment and a natural field experiment. One interesting result is that in both the actual marketplace and in the laboratory bargaining game, women in the matrilineal society earn more than men, at odds with years of evidence observed in the western world. We find that this result is critically driven by which side of the market the person is occupying: female (male) sellers in the matrilineal (patriarchal) society extract more of the bargaining surplus than male (female) sellers. In the buyer role, however, we observe no significant differences across societies.

Suggested Citation

  • Steffen Andersen & Seda Ertac & Uri Gneezy & John A. List & Sandra Maximiano, 2018. "On the cultural basis of gender differences in negotiation," Experimental Economics, Springer;Economic Science Association, vol. 21(4), pages 757-778, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:expeco:v:21:y:2018:i:4:d:10.1007_s10683-017-9547-y
    DOI: 10.1007/s10683-017-9547-y
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Uri Gneezy & Kenneth L. Leonard & John A. List, 2009. "Gender Differences in Competition: Evidence From a Matrilineal and a Patriarchal Society," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 77(5), pages 1637-1664, September.
    2. Andreas Leibbrandt & John A. List, 2015. "Do Women Avoid Salary Negotiations? Evidence from a Large-Scale Natural Field Experiment," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 61(9), pages 2016-2024, September.
    3. Steffen Andersen & Seda Ertac & Uri Gneezy & John A. List & Sandra Maximiano, 2013. "Gender, Competitiveness, and Socialization at a Young Age: Evidence From a Matrilineal and a Patriarchal Society," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 95(4), pages 1438-1443, October.
    4. Ertac, Seda & Gurdal, Mehmet Y., 2012. "Deciding to decide: Gender, leadership and risk-taking in groups," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 83(1), pages 24-30.
    5. Cárdenas, Juan-Camilo & Dreber, Anna & von Essen, Emma & Ranehill, Eva, 2012. "Gender differences in competitiveness and risk taking: Comparing children in Colombia and Sweden," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 83(1), pages 11-23.
    6. Banerjee, Debosree & Ibañez, Marcela & Riener, Gerhard & Wollni, Meike, 2015. "Volunteering to take on power: Experimental evidence from matrilineal and patriarchal societies in India," DICE Discussion Papers 204, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf Institute for Competition Economics (DICE).
    7. Muriel Niederle & Lise Vesterlund, 2007. "Do Women Shy Away From Competition? Do Men Compete Too Much?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 122(3), pages 1067-1101.
    8. Binglin Gong & Huibin Yan & Chun-Lei Yang, 2015. "Gender differences in the dictator experiment: evidence from the matrilineal Mosuo and the patriarchal Yi," Experimental Economics, Springer;Economic Science Association, vol. 18(2), pages 302-313, June.
    9. Steffen Andersen & Erwin Bulte & Uri Gneezy & John A. List, 2008. "Do Women Supply More Public Goods Than Men? Preliminary Experimental Evidence from Matrilineal and Patriarchal Societies," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 98(2), pages 376-381, May.
    10. Uri Gneezy & Muriel Niederle & Aldo Rustichini, 2003. "Performance in Competitive Environments: Gender Differences," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 118(3), pages 1049-1074.
    11. John A. List, 2004. "The Nature and Extent of Discrimination in the Marketplace: Evidence from the Field," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 119(1), pages 49-89.
    12. Pondorfer, Andreas & Omar Mahmoud, Toman & Rehdanz, Katrin & Schmidt, Ulrich, 2014. "Gender differences in risk preferences and stereotypes: Experimental evidence from a matrilineal and a patrilineal society," Kiel Working Papers 1957, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
    13. Uri Gneezy & Aldo Rustichini, 2004. "Gender and Competition at a Young Age," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(2), pages 377-381, May.
    14. Bowles, Hannah Riley & Babcock, Linda & McGinn, Kathleen L., 2005. "Constraints and Triggers: Situational Mechanics of Gender in Negotiation," Working Paper Series rwp05-051, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
    15. Rachel Croson & Uri Gneezy, 2009. "Gender Differences in Preferences," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 47(2), pages 448-474, June.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

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    Cited by:

    1. Leanne Roncolato & Alex Roomets, 2020. "Who will change the “baby?” Examining the power of gender in an experimental setting," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 18(3), pages 823-852, September.
    2. Najib A. Mozahem & Moniat El Noufous K. El Masri & Nazhat M. Najm & Samah S. Saleh, 2021. "How Gender Differences in Entitlement and Apprehension Manifest Themselves in Negotiation," Group Decision and Negotiation, Springer, vol. 30(3), pages 587-610, June.
    3. Andrzej Baranski Author e-mail: a.baranski@nyu.edu & Diogo Geraldes Author e-mail: diogogeraldes@gmail.com & Ada Kovaliukaite Author e-mail: ada.kovaliukaite@nyu.edu & James Tremewan Author e-mail: ja, 2021. "An Experiment on Gender Representation in Majoritarian Bargaining," Working Papers 20210060, New York University Abu Dhabi, Department of Social Science, revised Jan 2021.
    4. Schwieren, Christiane & Klonner, Stefan & Pal, Sumantra, 2020. "Equality of the Sexes and Gender Differences in Competition: Evidence from Three Traditional Societies," VfS Annual Conference 2020 (Virtual Conference): Gender Economics 224523, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    5. Lata Gangadharan & Tarun Jain & Pushkar Maitra & Joe Vecci, 2021. "Lab-in-the-Field Experiments: Perspectives from Research on Gender," Monash Economics Working Papers 2021-03, Monash University, Department of Economics.
    6. Anne‐Sophie Bruno & Nathalie Greenan & Jeremy Tanguy, 2021. "Does the Gender Mix Influence Collective Bargaining on Gender Equality? Evidence from France," Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 60(4), pages 479-520, October.
    7. Anne‐Sophie Bruno & Nathalie Greenan & Jeremy Tanguy, 2021. "Does the Gender Mix Influence Collective Bargaining on Gender Equality? Evidence from France," Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 60(4), pages 479-520, October.
    8. Difang Huang & Zhengyang Bao, 2020. "Gender Differences in Reaction to Enforcement Mechanisms: A Large-Scale Natural Field Experiment," Monash Economics Working Papers 08-20, Monash University, Department of Economics.
    9. Säve-Söderbergh, Jenny, 2019. "Gender gaps in salary negotiations: Salary requests and starting salaries in the field," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 161(C), pages 35-51.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Gender; Bargaining; Field experiments; Culture;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C93 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Design of Experiments - - - Field Experiments
    • D03 - Microeconomics - - General - - - Behavioral Microeconomics: Underlying Principles
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination

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