IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this article

Swedish CO 2 Emissions 1993–2006: An Application of Decomposition Analysis and Some Methodological Insights

  • Åsa Löfgren


  • Adrian Muller


This study undertakes a decomposition analysis to identify the drivers of carbon emissions change in the Swedish business and industry sectors 1993 - 2006. On aggregate, energy intensity decreased, but this does not seem to have been very important for reducing emissions. Rather, fuel substitution seems to have been more important, which is in line with findings from the decomposition literature on Sweden. However, at the sectoral level, we find no clear pattern of the effect of fuel substitution and energy intensity on emissions. We also draw some methodological conclusions: decomposition analysis should be undertaken at the most disaggregate level possible; assessing decomposition results by summing results over several time periods leads to biased results; and decomposition analysis should not be based only on some initial and final years of a long time period. Furthermore, we address the problem of double counting energy flows in decomposition analysis of aggregate effects when the energy sector is included, and point out potential problems related to output measured in monetary terms.

(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL:
Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

Article provided by Springer & European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists in its journal Environmental and Resource Economics.

Volume (Year): 47 (2010)
Issue (Month): 2 (October)
Pages: 221-239

in new window

Handle: RePEc:kap:enreec:v:47:y:2010:i:2:p:221-239
DOI: 10.1007/s10640-010-9373-6
Contact details of provider: Web page:


c/o EAERE Secretariat - Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei - Isola di San Giorgio Maggiore 8, I-30124 Venice, Italy

Phone: +39.041.2700438
Fax: +39.041.2700412
Web page:

More information through EDIRC

Order Information: Web:

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Ang, B.W. & Liu, Na, 2007. "Handling zero values in the logarithmic mean Divisia index decomposition approach," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 238-246, January.
  2. Ang, B.W., 2006. "Monitoring changes in economy-wide energy efficiency: From energy-GDP ratio to composite efficiency index," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(5), pages 574-582, March.
  3. Ang, B.W. & Huang, H.C. & Mu, A.R., 2009. "Properties and linkages of some index decomposition analysis methods," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(11), pages 4624-4632, November.
  4. Muller, Adrian, 2006. "Clarifying Poverty Decomposition," Working Papers in Economics 217, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics, revised 17 Nov 2008.
  5. Diakoulaki, D. & Mandaraka, M., 2007. "Decomposition analysis for assessing the progress in decoupling industrial growth from CO2 emissions in the EU manufacturing sector," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 636-664, July.
  6. Ang, B. W., 2004. "Decomposition analysis for policymaking in energy:: which is the preferred method?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(9), pages 1131-1139, June.
  7. Chunbo Ma & David I. Stern, 2006. "China's Changing Energy Intensity Trend: A Decomposition Analysis," Rensselaer Working Papers in Economics 0615, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Department of Economics.
  8. Hamilton, Clive & Turton, Hal, 2002. "Determinants of emissions growth in OECD countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 63-71, January.
  9. Chung, Hyun-Sik & Rhee, Hae-Chun, 2001. "A residual-free decomposition of the sources of carbon dioxide emissions: a case of the Korean industries," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 15-30.
  10. Laurent Viguier, 1999. "Emissions of SO2, NOx and CO2 in Transition Economies: Emission Inventories and Divisia Index Analysis," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 2), pages 59-87.
  11. Choi, Ki-Hong & Ang, B. W., 2003. "Decomposition of aggregate energy intensity changes in two measures: ratio and difference," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(6), pages 615-624, November.
  12. Kaivo-oja, Jari & Luukkanen, Jyrki, 2004. "The European Union balancing between CO2 reduction commitments and growth policies: decomposition analyses," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(13), pages 1511-1530, September.
  13. B. W. Ang & Ki-Hong Choi, 1997. "Decomposition of Aggregate Energy and Gas Emission Intensities for Industry: A Refined Divisia Index Method," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 3), pages 59-73.
  14. Paul, Shyamal & Bhattacharya, Rabindra Nath, 2004. "CO2 emission from energy use in India: a decomposition analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(5), pages 585-593, March.
  15. Matthew A. Cole & Robert J.R. Elliott & Kenichi Shimamoto, 2005. "A Note on Trends in European Industrial Pollution Intensities: A Divisia Index Approach," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 3), pages 61-74.
  16. Ang, B.W. & Liu, Na, 2007. "Energy decomposition analysis: IEA model versus other methods," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 1426-1432, March.
  17. Lescaroux, François, 2008. "Decomposition of US manufacturing energy intensity and elasticities of components with respect to energy prices," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 1068-1080, May.
  18. Sue Wing, Ian, 2008. "Explaining the declining energy intensity of the U.S. economy," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 21-49, January.
  19. Liaskas, K. & Mavrotas, G. & Mandaraka, M. & Diakoulaki, D., 2000. "Decomposition of industrial CO2 emissions:: The case of European Union," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 383-394, August.
  20. Albrecht, Johan & Francois, Delphine & Schoors, Koen, 2002. "A Shapley decomposition of carbon emissions without residuals," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(9), pages 727-736, July.
  21. Ang, B.W. & Liu, F.L., 2001. "A new energy decomposition method: perfect in decomposition and consistent in aggregation," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 26(6), pages 537-548.
  22. Muller, Adrian, 2006. "Putting decomposition of energy use and pollution on a firm footing - clarifications on the residual, zero and negative values and strategies to assess the performance of decomposition methods," Working Papers in Economics 215, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics, revised 10 Aug 2007.
  23. Kander, Astrid & Lindmark, Magnus, 2006. "Foreign trade and declining pollution in Sweden: a decomposition analysis of long-term structural and technological effects," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(13), pages 1590-1599, September.
  24. Unander, Fridtjof & Karbuz, Sohbet & Schipper, Lee & Khrushch, Marta & Ting, Michael, 1999. "Manufacturing energy use in OECD countries: decomposition of long-term trends," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 27(13), pages 769-778, November.
  25. Fernández, Esteban & Fernández, Paula, 2008. "An extension to Sun's decomposition methodology: The Path Based approach," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 1020-1036, May.
  26. Ang, B.W. & Liu, Na, 2007. "Negative-value problems of the logarithmic mean Divisia index decomposition approach," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 739-742, January.
  27. Liu, Na & Ang, B.W., 2007. "Factors shaping aggregate energy intensity trend for industry: Energy intensity versus product mix," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 609-635, July.
  28. Ebohon, Obas John & Ikeme, Anthony Jekwu, 2006. "Decomposition analysis of CO2 emission intensity between oil-producing and non-oil-producing sub-Saharan African countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(18), pages 3599-3611, December.
  29. Luukkanen, Jyrki & Kaivo-oja, Jari, 2002. "ASEAN tigers and sustainability of energy use--decomposition analysis of energy and CO2 efficiency dynamics," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 281-292, March.
  30. Schipper, Lee & Murtishaw, Scott & Khrushch, Marta & Ting, Michael & Karbuz, Sohbet & Unander, Fridtjof, 2001. "Carbon emissions from manufacturing energy use in 13 IEA countries: long-term trends through 1995," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(9), pages 667-688, July.
  31. Greening, Lorna A. & Davis, William B. & Schipper, Lee & Khrushch, Marta, 1997. "Comparison of six decomposition methods: application to aggregate energy intensity for manufacturing in 10 OECD countries," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 375-390, July.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:kap:enreec:v:47:y:2010:i:2:p:221-239. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sonal Shukla)

or (Rebekah McClure)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.