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Energy Use Patterns in German Industry: Evidence from Plant-level Data

Author

Listed:
  • Petrick Sebastian

    (Kiel Institute for the World Economy, Hindenburgufer 66, 24105 Kiel, Germany)

  • Rehdanz Katrin

    (Christian-Albrechts University of Kiel and Kiel Institute for the World Economy, Hindenburgufer 66, 24105 Kiel, Germany)

  • Wagner Ulrich J.

    (Universidad Carlos III deMadrid, CalleMadrid 126, 28903 Getafe (Madrid), Spain)

Abstract

This paper analyzes energy use and CO2 emissions of more than 78 000 German industrial plants between 1995 and 2006. It is the first study to exploit exceptionally rich energy data that were recently matched to official micro datasets. We document that both energy use and intensity are highly dispersed across plants. When isolating the between-sector variation in energy intensity, there is a strong positive correlation with energy use, CO2 emissions and emission intensity. Yet there is no evidence that the scale of an industry determines its energy intensity. The dispersion of energy use across plants of a given sector, normalized by the median, is positively correlated with that of gross output, but not with the median energy use. Similarly, there is no evidence that the median energy intensity is correlated with the within- sector dispersion of energy intensity or with that of CO2 emissions. Looking at the fuel mix across sectors, we find that more energy intensive industries rely more on fuels other than electricity, although the variability among plants in those industries is extremely high. We also demonstrate that average fuel shares are sensitive to the skewness of the underlying distribution and recommend the use of median fuel shares for better representativeness.

Suggested Citation

  • Petrick Sebastian & Rehdanz Katrin & Wagner Ulrich J., 2011. "Energy Use Patterns in German Industry: Evidence from Plant-level Data," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), De Gruyter, vol. 231(3), pages 379-414, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:jns:jbstat:v:231:y:2011:i:3:p:379-414
    DOI: 10.1515/jbnst-2011-0306
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Sourafel Girma & Holger Görg & Joachim Wagner, 2009. "Subsidies and Exports in Germany. First Evidence from Enterprise Panel Data," Applied Economics Quarterly (formerly: Konjunkturpolitik), Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, vol. 55(3), pages 179-198.
    2. Joachim Wagner, 2011. "Offshoring and firm performance: self-selection, effects on performance, or both?," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 147(2), pages 217-247, June.
    3. Joachim Wagner, 2010. "The Research Potential of New Types of Enterprise Data based on Surveys from Official Statistics in Germany," Schmollers Jahrbuch : Journal of Applied Social Science Studies / Zeitschrift für Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, vol. 130(1), pages 133-142.
    4. Helmut Fryges & Joachim Wagner, 2016. "Exports and Profitability — First Evidence for German Manufacturing Firms," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Microeconometrics of International Trade, chapter 7, pages 245-277, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    5. Anja Malchin & Ramona Voshage, 2009. "Official Firm Data for Germany," Schmollers Jahrbuch : Journal of Applied Social Science Studies / Zeitschrift für Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, vol. 129(3), pages 501-513.
    6. Joachim Wagner, 2006. "Politikrelevante Folgerungen aus Analysen mit Firmendaten der Amtlichen Statistik," Schmollers Jahrbuch : Journal of Applied Social Science Studies / Zeitschrift für Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, vol. 126(3), pages 359-374.
    7. Lutz, Christian & Meyer, Bernd & Nathani, Carsten & Schleich, Joachim, 2005. "Endogenous technological change and emissions: the case of the German steel industry," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(9), pages 1143-1154, June.
    8. Bernd Görzig & Ramona Pohl, 2007. "Diversifizierungsstrategien deutscher Unternehmen," AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv, Springer;Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft - German Statistical Society, vol. 1(3), pages 179-191, December.
    9. Stefan Mangelsdorf, 2007. "Ostdeutsche Industrie holt auf! Entwicklung des Verarbeitenden Gewerbes in Berlin und Brandenburg," AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv, Springer;Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft - German Statistical Society, vol. 1(3), pages 205-215, December.
    10. Joachim Wagner, 2010. "Entry, Exit and Productivity: Empirical Results for German Manufacturing Industries," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 11(1), pages 78-85, February.
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    12. Michael Konold, 2007. "European Data Watch: New possibilities for economic research through integration of establishment-level panel data of German official statistics," Schmollers Jahrbuch : Journal of Applied Social Science Studies / Zeitschrift für Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, vol. 127(2), pages 321-334.
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    Cited by:

    1. Gerster, Andreas, 2017. "Do electricity prices matter? Plant-level evidence from German manufacturing," Ruhr Economic Papers 672, RWI - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-University Bochum, TU Dortmund University, University of Duisburg-Essen.
    2. Rafael de Arce & Ramón Mahía, 2019. "Drivers of Electricity Poverty in Spanish Dwellings: A Quantile Regression Approach," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(11), pages 1-18, May.
    3. Jan Stede, 2019. "Do Energy Efficiency Networks Save Energy? Evidence from German Plant-Level Data," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1813, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    4. Lutz, Benjamin Johannes & Massier, Philipp & Sommerfeld, Katrin & Löschel, Andreas, 2017. "Drivers of energy efficiency in German manufacturing: A firm-level stochastic frontier analysis," ZEW Discussion Papers 17-068, ZEW - Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research.
    5. Di Maria, Corrado & Zarkovic, Maja & Hintermann, Beat, 2020. "Are Emissions Trading Schemes Cost-effective?," Working papers 2020/13, Faculty of Business and Economics - University of Basel.
    6. Richter, Philipp M. & Schiersch, Alexander, 2017. "CO2 emission intensity and exporting: Evidence from firm-level data," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 98(C), pages 373-391.
    7. Petrick, Sebastian & Wagner, Ulrich J., 2014. "The impact of carbon trading on industry: Evidence from German manufacturing firms," Kiel Working Papers 1912, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
    8. Löschel, Andreas & Lutz, Benjamin Johannes & Managi, Shunsuke, 2019. "The impacts of the EU ETS on efficiency and economic performance – An empirical analyses for German manufacturing firms," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 71-95.
    9. Löschel, Andreas & Lutz, Benjamin Johannes & Managi, Shunsuke, 2016. "The impacts of the EU ETS on efficiency: An empirical analyses for German manufacturing firms," ZEW Discussion Papers 16-089, ZEW - Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research.
    10. Hintermann, Beat & Zarkovic, Maja & Di Maria, Corrado & Wagner, Ulrich J., 2020. "The effect of climate policy on productivity and cost pass-through in the German manufacturing sector," Working papers 2020/11, Faculty of Business and Economics - University of Basel.
    11. von Graevenitz, Kathrine & Rottner, Elisa, 2020. "Energy use patterns in German manufacturing since 2003," ZEW Discussion Papers 20-008, ZEW - Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research.
    12. Ralf Martin & Mirabelle Muûls & Ulrich J. Wagner, 2016. "The Impact of the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme on Regulated Firms: What Is the Evidence after Ten Years?," Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 10(1), pages 129-148.

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