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Climate Change Adaptation in the Delta Nile Region of Egypt: Implications for Agricultural Extension


  • Hazem S. Kassem

    (Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Society, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
    Agricultural Extension and Rural Society Department, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt)

  • Abdel Raouf Suleiman Bello

    (Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Society, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia)

  • Bader M. Alotaibi

    (Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Society, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia)

  • Fahd O. Aldosri

    (Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Society, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia)

  • Gary S. Straquadine

    (Utah State University, Price, UT 84501, USA)


This study used quantitative and qualitative methods to collect data, using questionnaires and interviews, from 792 randomly-selected farmers in two of the governorates in the Nile Delta Region, Egypt. A workshop was organized for 59 extension professionals working in the two governorates, looking at how the adaptive capacity of the agricultural sector towards climate change was being guided by policy-makers. Two focus groups were used: one with senior officials from the regional governorates and the other with central government administrators from the Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation. The study findings suggested that 51.9% of the investigated farmers at the two targeted governorates had no knowledge about the climate change phenomenon. Maximizing the use of manure, changing crop patterns, and crop rotation were the adaptation measures most commonly adopted by aware respondents against climate change. Results of a probit model analysis indicated that farmers’ ability to adapt to climate change was influenced by education level, farm size, diversity of production, and membership of a Water User Association. The study recommended some extension interventions to raise awareness of the anticipated effects of climate change.

Suggested Citation

  • Hazem S. Kassem & Abdel Raouf Suleiman Bello & Bader M. Alotaibi & Fahd O. Aldosri & Gary S. Straquadine, 2019. "Climate Change Adaptation in the Delta Nile Region of Egypt: Implications for Agricultural Extension," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 11(3), pages 1-22, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jsusta:v:11:y:2019:i:3:p:685-:d:201428

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Alotaibi, Bader Alhafi & Kassem, Hazem S. & AL-Zaidi, Abdullah & Alyafrsi, Mohamad A., 2020. "Farmers’ awareness of agri-environmental legislation in Saudi Arabia," Land Use Policy, Elsevier, vol. 99(C).
    2. Hesham M. Aboelsoud & Mohamed A. E. AbdelRahman & Ahmed M. S. Kheir & Mona S. M. Eid & Khalil A. Ammar & Tamer H. Khalifa & Antonio Scopa, 2022. "Quantitative Estimation of Saline-Soil Amelioration Using Remote-Sensing Indices in Arid Land for Better Management," Land, MDPI, vol. 11(7), pages 1-19, July.
    3. Ahmed Abouaiana, 2022. "Rural Energy Communities as Pillar towards Low Carbon Future in Egypt: Beyond COP27," Land, MDPI, vol. 11(12), pages 1-18, December.
    4. Yasser A. El-Amier & Ahmed El-Zeiny & El-Sayed F. El-Halawany & Ashraf Elsayed & Mohamed A. El-Esawi & Ahmed Noureldeen & Hadeer Darwish & Amal Al-Barty & Shrouk A. Elagami, 2021. "Environmental and Stress Analysis of Wild Plant Habitat in River Nile Region of Dakahlia Governorate on Basis of Geospatial Techniques," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(11), pages 1-15, June.
    5. Bader Alhafi Alotaibi & Hazem S. Kassem & Roshan K. Nayak & Muhammad Muddassir, 2020. "Farmers’ Beliefs and Concerns about Climate Change: An Assessment from Southern Saudi Arabia," Agriculture, MDPI, vol. 10(7), pages 1-16, July.
    6. Waleed Abbas & Islam Hamdi, 2022. "Satellite-Based Discrimination of Urban Dynamics-Induced Local Bias from Day/Night Temperature Trends across the Nile Delta, Egypt: A Basis for Climate Change Impacts Assessment," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 14(21), pages 1-25, November.
    7. Kassem, Hazem S. & Alotaibi, Bader Alhafi & Muddassir, Muhammad & Herab, Ahmed, 2021. "Factors influencing farmers’ satisfaction with the quality of agricultural extension services," Evaluation and Program Planning, Elsevier, vol. 85(C).
    8. Victor O. Abegunde & Melusi Sibanda & Ajuruchukwu Obi, 2019. "Determinants of the Adoption of Climate-Smart Agricultural Practices by Small-Scale Farming Households in King Cetshwayo District Municipality, South Africa," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 12(1), pages 1-27, December.

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