IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Determinants for Bullying Victimization among 11–16-Year-Olds in 15 Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Multi-Level Study


  • Michael L. Wilson

    () (Centre for Injury Prevention and Community Safety (CIPCS), PeerCorps Trust Fund, 352/64 Makunganya Street, Co-Architecture Building, 4th Floor, P. O. Box 22499, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
    Unit of Adolescent Psychiatry, Turku University Hospital, Department of Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Turku, Kaskenkatu 13 A 7, Turku 20700, Finland)

  • Andrea C. Dunlavy

    () (Centre for Injury Prevention and Community Safety (CIPCS), PeerCorps Trust Fund, 352/64 Makunganya Street, Co-Architecture Building, 4th Floor, P. O. Box 22499, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania)

  • André Berchtold

    () (Institute of Social Sciences, University of Lausanne, SSP/Géopolis, Lausanne CH-1015, Switzerland)


Bullying is an issue of public health importance among adolescents worldwide. The present study aimed at explaining differences in bullying rates among adolescents in 15 low- and middle-income countries using globally comparable indicators of social and economic well-being. Using data derived from the Global School-based Health Survey, we performed bivariate analyses to examine differences in bullying rates by country and by bullying type. We then constructed a multi-level model using four fixed variables (age, gender, hunger and truancy) at the individual level, random effects at the classroom and school levels and four fixed variables at the country level (Gini coefficient, per capita Gross Domestic Project, homicide rate and pupil to teacher ratio). Bullying rates differed significantly by classroom, school and by country, with Egypt (34.2%) and Macedonia (3.6%) having the highest and lowest rates, respectively. Eleven-year-olds were the most likely of the studied age groups to report being bullied, as was being a male. Hunger and truancy were found to significantly predict higher rates of bullying. None of the explanatory variables at the country level remained in the final model. While self-reported bullying varied significantly between countries, the variance between classrooms better explained these differences. Our findings suggest that classroom settings should be considered when designing approaches aimed at bullying prevention.

Suggested Citation

  • Michael L. Wilson & Andrea C. Dunlavy & André Berchtold, 2013. "Determinants for Bullying Victimization among 11–16-Year-Olds in 15 Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Multi-Level Study," Social Sciences, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 2(4), pages 1-13, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jscscx:v:2:y:2013:i:4:p:208-220:d:29650

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. repec:aph:ajpbhl:10.2105/ajph.2008.139303_0 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Bhattacharya, Jayanta & Currie, Janet & Haider, Steven, 2004. "Poverty, food insecurity, and nutritional outcomes in children and adults," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(4), pages 839-862, July.
    3. Wendy Craig & Yossi Harel-Fisch & Haya Fogel-Grinvald & Suzanne Dostaler & Jorn Hetland & Bruce Simons-Morton & Michal Molcho & Margarida Mato & Mary Overpeck & Pernille Due & William Pickett, 2009. "A cross-national profile of bullying and victimization among adolescents in 40 countries," International Journal of Public Health, Springer;Swiss School of Public Health (SSPH+), vol. 54(2), pages 216-224, September.
    4. Ram, Rati, 1984. "Population increase, economic growth, educational inequality, and income distribution : Some recent evidence," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 419-428, April.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. repec:eee:cysrev:v:80:y:2017:i:c:p:171-180 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item


    violence; aggression; secondary schools; hunger; adolescents;

    JEL classification:

    • A - General Economics and Teaching
    • B - Schools of Economic Thought and Methodology
    • N - Economic History
    • P - Economic Systems
    • Y80 - Miscellaneous Categories - - Related Disciplines - - - Related Disciplines
    • Z00 - Other Special Topics - - General - - - General


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:gam:jscscx:v:2:y:2013:i:4:p:208-220:d:29650. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (XML Conversion Team). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.