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Impact of Economic Growth, Environmental Pollution, and Energy Consumption on Health Expenditure and R&D Expenditure of ASEAN Countries


  • Muhammad Haseeb

    (Taylor’s Business School, Taylor’s University Lakeside Campus, 1 Jalan Taylors, Subang Jaya 47500, Malaysia)

  • Sebastian Kot

    (Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences, North-West University, Vaal Triangle Campus, P.O. Box 1174, Vanderbijlpark 1900, South Africa
    The Management Faculty, Czestochowa University of Technology, 42.201 Czestochowa, Poland)

  • Hafezali Iqbal Hussain

    (Taylor’s Business School, Taylor’s University Lakeside Campus, 1 Jalan Taylors, Subang Jaya 47500, Malaysia)

  • Kittisak Jermsittiparsert

    (Social Research Institute, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand)


The purpose of the current study was to examine the determinants of R&D expenditure and health expenditure of ASEAN countries. The research objectives were developed to analyze the short-term as well as the long-term impact of economic growth, environmental pollution, and energy consumption on health and R&D expenditures. The data was collected for ten years for ASEAN countries using the Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach, which helped the researcher to assess long-run as well as the short-run association of these variables. The findings revealed that environmental pollution, energy consumption, and economic growth had a significant positive impact on health expenditure as well as on R&D expenditure of ASEAN countries in long-run. The findings further revealed that environmental pollution and economic growth had a significant impact on R&D expenditure in short-run; however, there was no significant impact of energy consumption on R&D expenditure in short-run. It was also found that there was no significant impact of any of the independent variables, i.e., energy consumption, economic growth, and environmental pollution, on health expenditure in short-run. The current study and findings have significant implications in theory and practice.

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  • Muhammad Haseeb & Sebastian Kot & Hafezali Iqbal Hussain & Kittisak Jermsittiparsert, 2019. "Impact of Economic Growth, Environmental Pollution, and Energy Consumption on Health Expenditure and R&D Expenditure of ASEAN Countries," Energies, MDPI, vol. 12(19), pages 1-21, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jeners:v:12:y:2019:i:19:p:3598-:d:269269

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