Does environmental quality influence health expenditures? Empirical evidence from a panel of selected OECD countries
In this paper we examine the role of environmental quality in determining per capita health expenditures. We take a panel cointegration approach in order to explore the possibility of estimating both short-run and long-run impacts of environmental quality. Our empirical analysis is based on eight OECD countries, namely Austria, Denmark, Iceland, Ireland, Norway, Spain, Switzerland, and the UK for the period 1980-1999. We find that per capita health expenditure, per capita income, carbon monoxide emissions, sulphur oxide emissions and nitrogen oxide emissions are panel cointegrated. While short-run elasticities reveal that income and carbon monoxide emissions exert a statistically significant positive effect on health expenditures, in the long-run in addition to income and carbon monoxide, we find that sulphur oxide emissions have a statistically significant positive impact on health expenditures.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Donald Freeman, 2003. "Is health care a necessity or a luxury? Pooled estimates of income elasticity from US state-level data," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(5), pages 495-502.
- Gerdtham, Ulf-G. & Lothgren, Mickael, 2000.
"On stationarity and cointegration of international health expenditure and GDP,"
Journal of Health Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 461-475, July.
- Gerdtham, Ulf-G. & Löthgren, Mickael, 1998. "On stationarity and cointegration of international health expenditure and GDP," SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 232, Stockholm School of Economics, revised 29 Jan 1999.
- Joakim Westerlund, 2006.
"Testing for Panel Cointegration with Multiple Structural Breaks,"
Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics,
Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 68(1), pages 101-132, 02.
- Westerlund, Joakim, 2005. "Testing for Panel Cointegration with Multiple Structural Breaks," Working Papers 2005:12, Lund University, Department of Economics.
- Im, Kyung So & Pesaran, M. Hashem & Shin, Yongcheol, 2003.
"Testing for unit roots in heterogeneous panels,"
Journal of Econometrics,
Elsevier, vol. 115(1), pages 53-74, July.
- Tom Doan, . "IPSHIN: RATS procedure to implement Im, Pesaran and Shin panel unit root test," Statistical Software Components RTS00098, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Pasaran, M.H. & Im, K.S. & Shin, Y., 1995. "Testing for Unit Roots in Heterogeneous Panels," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 9526, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
- Gbesemete, Kwame P. & Gerdtham, Ulf-G., 1992. "Determinants of health care expenditure in Africa: A cross-sectional study," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 303-308, February.
- Hansen, Paul & King, Alan, 1996. "The determinants of health care expenditure: A cointegration approach," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 127-137, February.
- Peter Pedroni, 2000.
"Fully Modified OLS for Heterogeneous Cointegrated Panels,"
Department of Economics Working Papers
2000-03, Department of Economics, Williams College.
- Tom Doan, . "PANELFM: RATS procedure to perform panel data group mean FMOLS," Statistical Software Components RTS00151, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Neidell, Matthew J., 2004. "Air pollution, health, and socio-economic status: the effect of outdoor air quality on childhood asthma," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(6), pages 1209-1236, November.
- Herwartz, Helmut & Theilen, Bernd, 2000.
"The determinants of health care expenditure: Testing pooling restrictions in small samples,"
SFB 373 Discussion Papers
2000,78, Humboldt University of Berlin, Interdisciplinary Research Project 373: Quantification and Simulation of Economic Processes.
- Helmut Herwartz & Bernd Theilen, 2003. "The determinants of health care expenditure: testing pooling restrictions in small samples," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 12(2), pages 113-124.
- Anett Hansen & Harald Selte, 2000. "Air Pollution and Sick-leaves," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 16(1), pages 31-50, May.
- Peter Pedroni, 1999.
"Critical Values for Cointegration Tests in Heterogeneous Panels with Multiple Regressors,"
Department of Economics Working Papers
2000-02, Department of Economics, Williams College.
- Pedroni, Peter, 1999. " Critical Values for Cointegration Tests in Heterogeneous Panels with Multiple Regressors," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 61(0), pages 653-70, Special I.
- N. R. Vasudeva Murthy & Victor Ukpolo, 1995. "Aggregate health care expenditure in the United States: new results," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 2(11), pages 419-421.
- Narayan, Paresh Kumar, 2006. "Examining structural breaks and growth rates in international health expenditures," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(5), pages 877-890, September.
- N.R. Murthy & Albert Okunade, 2000. "Managed care, deficit financing, and aggregate health care expenditure in the United States: A cointegration analysis," Health Care Management Science, Springer, vol. 3(4), pages 279-285, September.
- Di Matteo, Livio & Di Matteo, Rosanna, 1998. "Evidence on the determinants of Canadian provincial government health expenditures: 1965-1991," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 211-228, April.
- Gerdtham, Ulf-G. & Sogaard, Jes & Andersson, Fredrik & Jonsson, Bengt, 1992. "An econometric analysis of health care expenditure: A cross-section study of the OECD countries," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 63-84, May.
- Jerry A. Hausman & Bart D. Ostro & David A. Wise, 1984. "Air Pollution and Lost Work," NBER Working Papers 1263, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jason F. Shogren, 2001. "Children And The Environment: Valuing Indirect Effects On A Child'S Life Chances," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 19(4), pages 382-396, October.
- Hitiris, Theo & Posnett, John, 1992. "The determinants and effects of health expenditure in developed countries," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 173-181, August.
- Ostro, Bart D., 1987. "Air pollution and morbidity revisited: A specification test," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 87-98, March.
- Thijs Zuidema & Andries Nentjes, 1997. "Health damage of air pollution: An estimate of a dose-response relationship for the Netherlands," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 9(3), pages 291-308, April.
- Mead, Robert W. & Brajer, Victor, 2005. "Protecting China's children: valuing the health impacts of reduced air pollution in Chinese cities," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 10(06), pages 745-768, December.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:ecolec:v:65:y:2008:i:2:p:367-374. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.