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Financing Health Care Expenditure in the OECD Countries: Evidence from a Heterogeneous, Cross-Sectionally Dependent Panel

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  • Felipa de Mello-Sampayo
  • Sofia de Sousa Vale

Abstract

As apresentações habituais do modelo Hecksher-Ohlin (HO) nos livros de texto têm quatro problemas: análise por vezes superficial dos mecanismos económicos relevantes; escassa ilustração através de exemplos económicos concretos da capacidade explicativa do modelo; utilização de análises matemática e sobretudo gráfica frequentemente desnecessárias; e utilização da hipótese, muito discutível, de que a remuneração de um factor é determinada pela sua produtividade marginal – opção que acaba por afastar a discussão da realidade económica concreta. Estes problemas – designadamente, a ênfase na análise formal e o défice de análise económica e de exemplos ilustrativos - conferem um “sabor artificial” ao modelo HO, tornando-o pouco credível. O presente artigo pretende dar um contributo para a resolução deste problema, apresentando uma exposição do modelo HO diferente das habituais nos livros de texto. São de destacar os seguintes contributos: i) a precisão da noção de “preço do capital”; ii) o esclarecimento da noção de abundância de capital; iii) a recuperação de exemplos do texto clássico de Ohlin muito elucidativos a respeito da capacidade explicativa do teorema HO; iv) uma possível explicação para o paradoxo de Leontieff; v) a ilustração do efeito da especialização sobre os preços relativos dos factores e dos bens com base em gráficos diferentes dos habituais; vi) uma explicação para a origem dos ganhos do comércio diferente da tradicional; vii) a discussão do efeito do comércio sobre o rendimento real dos factores sem a utilização da hipótese – muito discutível - de que a remuneração de um factor é determinada pela sua produtividade marginal; viii) a discussão do efeito que o comércio e o progresso técnico terão tido sobre a evolução dos salários reais de trabalhadores americanos com diferentes níveis de qualificação desde 1979; ix) por último, a explicação do teorema de Rybczynski a partir de um exemplo concreto: o aprofundamento da especialização portuguesa em têxteis, vestuário e calçado na década a seguir ao 25 de Abril de 1974. JEL Classification: C33; H51; I10;

Suggested Citation

  • Felipa de Mello-Sampayo & Sofia de Sousa Vale, 2012. "Financing Health Care Expenditure in the OECD Countries: Evidence from a Heterogeneous, Cross-Sectionally Dependent Panel," Working Papers Department of Economics 2012/34, ISEG - Lisbon School of Economics and Management, Department of Economics, Universidade de Lisboa.
  • Handle: RePEc:ise:isegwp:wp342012
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    2. Kosta Josifidis & Radmila Dragutinovíc Mitrovíc & Olgica Glavaski & Novica Supíc, 2018. "Public Policies Influence on Fiscal Deficit in the EU-28: Common Correlated Effects Approach," Hacienda Pública Española / Review of Public Economics, IEF, vol. 227(4), pages 63-101, December.
    3. Eugene Kouassi & Oluyele Akinkugbe & Noni Oratile Kutlo & J. M. Bosson Brou, 2018. "Health expenditure and growth dynamics in the SADC region: evidence from non-stationary panel data with cross section dependence and unobserved heterogeneity," International Journal of Health Economics and Management, Springer, vol. 18(1), pages 47-66, March.
    4. Muhammad Arshad Khan & Muhammad Iftikhar Ul Husnain, 2019. "Is health care a luxury or necessity good? Evidence from Asian countries," International Journal of Health Economics and Management, Springer, vol. 19(2), pages 213-233, June.

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    Keywords

    Health Expenditure; Drivers of Health Expenditure; Panel Unit Root Tests; Panel Cointegration; Cross Section Dependence model.;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C33 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • H51 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Government Expenditures and Health
    • I10 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - General

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