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New panel results on cointegration of international health expenditure and GDP

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  • U. -G. Gerdtham
  • M. Lothgren

Abstract

This article tests for existence of cointegration between health expenditure and GDP using data from 25 OECD countries for the period 19607ndash;1997. The empirical modelling is based on a heterogeneous bivariate vector error correction panel model that allows for trending data as well as intercepts and trends in the cointegrating relations. Univariate country-by-country and panel unit root tests generally fail to reject the null of a unit root in the health expenditure and GDP variables. Country-by-country results based on the Johansen multivariate likelihood-based inference indicate somewhat mixed results on country-specific cointegration with a rank of one found for 12 countries and a rank of zero for the remaining 13 countries. Application of a new panel test for cointegration rank with higher power than the individual tests indicates that health expenditure and GDP are cointegrated around linear trends.

Suggested Citation

  • U. -G. Gerdtham & M. Lothgren, 2002. "New panel results on cointegration of international health expenditure and GDP," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(13), pages 1679-1686.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:applec:v:34:y:2002:i:13:p:1679-1686 DOI: 10.1080/00036840110116397
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. King, Mervyn A. & Fullerton, Don, 2010. "The Taxation of Income from Capital," National Bureau of Economic Research Books, University of Chicago Press, edition 0, number 9780226436319.
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    Cited by:

    1. Boboc, Cristina & Driouchi, Ahmed & Titan, Emilia, 2010. "Interrelations between Education, Health, Income and Economic Development in Europe with Emphasis on New Members of European Union," MPRA Paper 22235, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 19 Apr 2010.
    2. Po-Chin Wu & Shiao-Yen Liu & Sheng-Chieh Pan, 2014. "Nonlinear relationship between health care expenditure and its determinants: a panel smooth transition regression model," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 41(4), pages 713-729, November.
    3. Bella, Giovanni & Massidda, Carla & Mattana, Paolo, 2014. "The relationship among CO2 emissions, electricity power consumption and GDP in OECD countries," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 36(6), pages 970-985.
    4. Christian Richter & Andrew Hughes Hallett, 2005. "A Time-Frequency Analysis of the Coherences of the US Business," Computing in Economics and Finance 2005 45, Society for Computational Economics.
    5. Tsung-Yu Hsieh & Huai-I Lee & Yu-Ju Huang, 2016. "An investigation of the factors affecting medical expenses: The case of Taiwan’s NHI implementation," Journal of Applied Finance & Banking, SCIENPRESS Ltd, vol. 6(6), pages 1-8.
    6. Roel van Elk & Esther Mot & P.H. Franses, 2009. "Modelling health care expenditures; overview of the literature and evidence from a panel time series model," CPB Discussion Paper 121, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
    7. Felipa de Mello-Sampayo & Sofia de Sousa-Vale, 2014. "Financing Health Care Expenditure in the OECD Countries: Evidence from a Heterogeneous, Cross-Sectional Dependent Panel," Panoeconomicus, Savez ekonomista Vojvodine, Novi Sad, Serbia, vol. 61(2), pages 207-225, March.
    8. Baltagi, Badi H. & Moscone, Francesco, 2010. "Health care expenditure and income in the OECD reconsidered: Evidence from panel data," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 27(4), pages 804-811, July.
    9. Zijun Wang & Andrew J. Rettenmaier, 2007. "A note on cointegration of health expenditures and income," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(6), pages 559-578.
    10. Carla Massidda & Paolo Mattana, 2008. "Regional productivity and relative prices dynamics: the case of Italy," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 42(4), pages 945-966, December.
    11. Dreger, C. & Reimers, H.E., 2005. "Health Care Expenditures in OECD Countries: A Panel Unit Root and Cointegration Analysis," International Journal of Applied Econometrics and Quantitative Studies, Euro-American Association of Economic Development, vol. 2(2), pages 5-20.
    12. Habib Nawaz Khan & Muhammad Arshad Khan & Radzuan B. Razli & Afz’a Binti Sahfie & Gulap Shehzada & Katrina Lane Krebs & Nasrin Sarvghad, 2016. "Health Care Expenditure and Economic Growth in SAARC Countries (1995–2012): A Panel Causality Analysis," Applied Research in Quality of Life, Springer;International Society for Quality-of-Life Studies, vol. 11(3), pages 639-661, September.
    13. Shailender Kumar Hooda, 2016. "Determinants of Public Expenditure on Health in India: A Panel Data Analysis at Sub-National Level," Journal of Quantitative Economics, Springer;The Indian Econometric Society (TIES), vol. 14(2), pages 257-282, December.
    14. repec:bla:ijhplm:v:31:y:2016:i:4:p:580-601 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Po-Chin Wu & Shiao-Yen Liu & Sheng-Chieh Pan, 2014. "Does Misery Index Matter for the Persistence of Health Spending? Evidence from OECD Countries," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 118(2), pages 893-910, September.
    16. Marwa Farag & A. NandaKumar & Stanley Wallack & Dominic Hodgkin & Gary Gaumer & Can Erbil, 2012. "The income elasticity of health care spending in developing and developed countries," International Journal of Health Economics and Management, Springer, vol. 12(2), pages 145-162, June.
    17. Giorgia Marini, 2016. "A note on the power of panel cointegration tests – An application to health care expenditure and gdp," Public Finance Research Papers 21, Istituto di Economia e Finanza, DIGEF, Sapienza University of Rome.
    18. Błażej Łyszczarz & Ewelina Nojszewska, 2015. "Determinants of health care expenditure in Europe," Collegium of Economic Analysis Annals, Warsaw School of Economics, Collegium of Economic Analysis, issue 39, pages 183-198.
    19. Paresh Kumar Narayan, 2010. "Modelling health and output at business cycle horizons for the USA," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 19(7), pages 872-880.

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