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The impact of investing in social care on employment generation, time-, income-poverty by gender: A macro-micro policy simulation for Turkey


  • Ilkkaracan, Ipek
  • Kim, Kijong
  • Masterson, Tom
  • Memiş, Emel
  • Zacharias, Ajit


This paper uses applied macro–micro policy modeling and simulation to explore the gendered impact of increased public expenditures on Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) on employment and income generation, time allocation to paid versus unpaid work, and poverty. We use a statistically matched dataset from the 2015 Time Use Survey and the Survey on Income and Living Conditions in Turkey to assess the poverty impact not only in terms of official income poverty but also in terms of time-poverty and a combined time- and income poverty measure.

Suggested Citation

  • Ilkkaracan, Ipek & Kim, Kijong & Masterson, Tom & Memiş, Emel & Zacharias, Ajit, 2021. "The impact of investing in social care on employment generation, time-, income-poverty by gender: A macro-micro policy simulation for Turkey," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 144(C).
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:wdevel:v:144:y:2021:i:c:s0305750x21000887
    DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2021.105476

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Patricia Apps & Ray Rees, 2005. "Gender, Time Use, and Public Policy over the Life Cycle," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press and Oxford Review of Economic Policy Limited, vol. 21(3), pages 439-461, Autumn.
    2. Kim, Kijong & İlkkaracan, İpek & Kaya, Tolga, 2019. "Public investment in care services in Turkey: Promoting employment & gender inclusive growth," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 41(6), pages 1210-1229.
    3. Budig, Michelle J. & Misra, Joya & Boeckmann, Irene, 2016. "Work-family policy trade-offs for mothers? Unpacking the cross-national variation in motherhood earnings penalties," EconStor Open Access Articles and Book Chapters, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, vol. 43(2), pages 119-177.
    4. Susan Himmelweit, 2002. "Making Visible the Hidden Economy: The Case for Gender-Impact Analysis of Economic Policy," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(1), pages 49-70.
    5. Ajit Zacharias & Thomas Masterson & Emel Memiş, 2014. "Time Deficits and Poverty: The Levy Institute Measure of Time and Consumption Poverty for Turkey," Ekonomik Yaklasim, Ekonomik Yaklasim Association, vol. 25(91), pages 1-28.
    6. Berik, GUnseli & Bilginsoy, Cihan, 2000. "Type of Work Matters: Women's Labor Force Participation and the Child Sex Ratio in Turkey," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 28(5), pages 861-878, May.
    7. Rania Antonopoulos & Thomas Masterson & Ajit Zacharias, 2012. "It's About 'Time': Why Time Deficits Matter for Poverty," Economics Public Policy Brief Archive ppb_126, Levy Economics Institute.
    8. Ajit Zacharias, 2011. "The Measurement of Time and Income Poverty," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_690, Levy Economics Institute.
    9. Thomas Masterson & Emel Memis & Ajit Zacharias, 2014. "Time and Consumption Poverty in Turkey," Economics One-Pager Archive op_46, Levy Economics Institute.
    10. Rania Antonopoulos & Kijong Kim & Thomas Masterson & Andajit Zacharias, 2010. "Why President Obama Should Care About 'Care': An Effective and Equitable Investment Strategy for Job Creation," Economics Public Policy Brief Archive ppb_108, Levy Economics Institute.
    11. Patricia Apps & Ray Rees, 2004. "The Household, Time Use and Tax Policy," CESifo Economic Studies, CESifo Group, vol. 50(3), pages 479-500.
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    Cited by:

    1. Sinha, Aashima & Kumar Sedai, Ashish & Bahadur Rahut, Dil & Sonobe, Tetsushi, 2024. "Well-being costs of unpaid care: Gendered evidence from a contextualized time-use survey in India," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 173(C).
    2. Oyvat, Cem & Onaran, Özlem, 2022. "The effects of social infrastructure and gender equality on output and employment: The case of South Korea," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 158(C).
    3. Aashima Sinha, 2023. "The Road to Gender-Equitable Growth: A State-level Analysis of Social Reproduction in the U.S," Working Paper Series, Department of Economics, University of Utah 2023_03, University of Utah, Department of Economics.
    4. Zuazu-Bermejo, Izaskun, 2024. "Reviewing feminist macroeconomics for the XXI century," ifso working paper series 30, University of Duisburg-Essen, Institute for Socioeconomics (ifso).
    5. Small, Sarah F. & van der Meulen Rodgers, Yana, 2023. "The gendered effects of investing in physical and social infrastructure," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 171(C).
    6. Cieplinski, André & D'Alessandro, Simone & Dwarkasing, Chandni & Guarnieri, Pietro, 2023. "Narrowing women’s time and income gaps: An assessment of the synergies between working time reduction and universal income schemes," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 167(C).

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