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Time Deficits and Poverty: The Levy Institute Measure of Time and Consumption Poverty for Turkey


  • Ajit Zacharias

    (Levy Ecoomics Institute, New York, USA.)

  • Thomas Masterson

    (Levy Ecoomics Institute, New York, USA.)

  • Emel Memiş

    (Ankara University)


This study presents a new methodology for a two-dimesional poverty measure for Turkey taking into account necessary consumption as well as the required household production neded to achieve a minium living standard. Official poverty lines in Turkey and other countries ignore the fact that unpaid household production contributes to the fulfillment of material needs and wants that are essential to attaining a minimum standard of living. Standard measurements of poverty assume that all households and individuals have enough time to adequately attend to the needs of household members, yet, some households may not have sufficient time, and they thus experience "time deficits." If a household experiencing a time deficit cannot afford to cover it by buying market substitutes (e.g., hiring a care provider), that household will encounter hardships not reflected in the official poverty measures.

Suggested Citation

  • Ajit Zacharias & Thomas Masterson & Emel Memiş, 2014. "Time Deficits and Poverty: The Levy Institute Measure of Time and Consumption Poverty for Turkey," Ekonomik Yaklasim, Ekonomik Yaklasim Association, vol. 25(91), pages 1-28.
  • Handle: RePEc:eyd:eyjrnl:v:25:y:2014:i:91:p:1-28
    DOI: 10.5455/ey.35410
    Note: [Turkish Title] Zaman Açığı ve Yoksulluk: Levy Enstitüsü Zaman ve Tüketim Yoksulluğu Ölçümü [Turkish Abstract] Bu çalışma Türkiye için, gerekli asgari tüketim düzeyi ve gerekli hane içi üretim zamanını hesaba katan iki boyutlu bir yoksulluk ölçüm yöntemi sunar. Resmi yoksulluk sınırı hesaplamalarında, asgari refah düzeyine erişim için gerekli ihtiyaçların karşılanmasında hane içi üretimin katkısı hesaba katılmaz. Yoksulluğun standart ölçüm yöntemleri zımni olarak tüm hanelerin ve fertlerin, hane içinde karşılanan ihtiyaçları yerine getirmek için gerekli zamana sahip olduğunu varsayar. Ancak pekçok nedenle bazı haneler bu ihtiyaçları karşılayabilecek yeterli zamana sahip olmayabilir ve ‘zaman açıklarıyla’ karşı karşıya kalabilirler. Zaman açığı olan ve piyasadan ikame mal ve hizmetleri satın alarak kapatabilecek güce sahip olmayan hanelerin başetmeleri gereken güçlükler resmi ölçümlere yansımamaktadır. [Turkish Keywords] Yoksulluk ölçümü, haneiçi üretim.

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    Cited by:

    1. Ajit Zacharias & Thomas Masterson & Emel Memis, 2014. "How Poor Is Turkey? And What Can Be Done About It?," Economics Public Policy Brief Archive ppb_132, Levy Economics Institute.
    2. Fernando Rios-Avila, 2016. "Quality of Match for Statistical Matches Used in the Development of the Levy Institute Measure of Time and Consumption Poverty (LIMTCP) for Ghana and Tanzania," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_873, Levy Economics Institute.
    3. Ajit Zacharias, 2017. "How Time Deficits and Hidden Poverty Undermine the Sustainable Development Goals," Economics Policy Note Archive 17-4, Levy Economics Institute.
    4. Thomas Masterson & Ajit Zacharias, 2018. "Wage Employment and the Prospects of Women's Economic Empowerment: Some Lessons from Ghana and Tanzania," Economics Policy Note Archive 18-4, Levy Economics Institute.
    5. Fernando Rios-Avila, 2020. "Quality of Match for Statistical Matches Used in the Development of the Levy Institute Measure of Time and Consumption Poverty (LIMTCP) for Ethiopia and South Africa," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_970, Levy Economics Institute.
    6. Mehmet ZANBAK & Reyhan ÖZEŞ ÖZGÜR, 2019. "The Effect of Internal Migration on Regional Poverty in Turkey: The Determining Role of the Agricultural Sector," Journal of Economy Culture and Society, Istanbul University, Faculty of Economics, vol. 60(1), pages 145-169, December.
    7. Fatima Iqbal & Muhammad Bilal Ahmad & Rai Imtiaz Hussain & Sohail Aslam & Hafiz Fawad Ali, 2020. "Time Poverty among Working Females in Pakistan: A Qualitative Study," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 10(4), pages 170-175.
    8. Rania Antonopoulos & Valeria Esquivel & Thomas Masterson & Ajit Zacharias, 2016. "Measuring Poverty in the Case of Buenos Aires: Why Time Deficits Matter," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_865, Levy Economics Institute.
    9. Ilkkaracan, Ipek & Kim, Kijong & Masterson, Tom & Memiş, Emel & Zacharias, Ajit, 2021. "The impact of investing in social care on employment generation, time-, income-poverty by gender: A macro-micro policy simulation for Turkey," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 144(C).

    More about this item


    Measurement of poverty; household production.;

    JEL classification:

    • I32 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Measurement and Analysis of Poverty
    • D24 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Production; Cost; Capital; Capital, Total Factor, and Multifactor Productivity; Capacity


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