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Moving to despair? Migration and well-being in Pakistan

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  • Chen, Joyce
  • Kosec, Katrina
  • Mueller, Valerie

Abstract

Internal migration has the potential to substantially increase incomes, especially for the poor in developing countries, and yet migration rates remain low. We evaluate the impact of internal migration on both objective and subjective measures of well-being using a unique longitudinal study in rural Pakistan spanning 1991–2013. We account for selection using covariate matching. Migrants have roughly 35–40 percent higher consumption, yet are less likely to report being happy, calm and/or in excellent health, and more likely to report having been sick recently. Our results suggest that deteriorating physical health coupled with feelings of stress and relative deprivation underlie the disparity between objective and subjective well-being. Thus, despite substantial monetary gains from migration, people may be happier and less mentally distressed by remaining at home. If traditional market mechanisms cannot reduce psychic costs, it may be more constructive to address regional inequality by shifting production – rather than workers – across space.

Suggested Citation

  • Chen, Joyce & Kosec, Katrina & Mueller, Valerie, 2019. "Moving to despair? Migration and well-being in Pakistan," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 113(C), pages 186-203.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:wdevel:v:113:y:2019:i:c:p:186-203
    DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2018.09.007
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    2. Kosec, Katrina & Mo, Cecilia Hyunjung & Schmidt, Emily & Song, Jie, 2021. "Perceptions of relative deprivation and women’s empowerment," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 138(C).
    3. Dao Duy Minh & Philippe Lebailly & Nguyen Dang Hao & Ho Thi Minh Hop, 2019. "The Evolution of Migration: The Case of Coastal Sandy Zone in Thua Thien Hue Province, Vietnam," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 9(4), pages 156-165.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Internal migration; Income; Wealth; Well-being; Pakistan;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J61 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
    • I31 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - General Welfare, Well-Being

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