IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/riibaf/v35y2015icp33-56.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Risk and ethical investment: Empirical evidence from Dow Jones Islamic indexes

Author

Listed:
  • Charles, Amélie
  • Darné, Olivier
  • Pop, Adrian

Abstract

This paper contributes to the literature on the impact of the Shari’ah filtering criteria on the risk of Dow Jones Islamic indexes relative to their conventional counterparts. We show that Islamic and conventional indexes are affected by the same extreme events which can bias the estimation of the risk, especially the period of the Global Financial Crisis of 2007–2008 and its aftermath which is characterized by a very high level of volatility. Then, we examine whether the Islamic indexes are more risky than the conventional indexes using different risk measures. We also analyze the performance of both indexes from various risk-adjusted performance measures. Overall, the Islamic indexes seem to be more risky than their conventional counterparts as well as exhibit a higher performance on the full period (1996–2013). The sample period is further divided into low volatility period and high volatility period based on the detection of structural breaks in the volatility. The results also show that both indexes have been affected by variance changes. We show that most of the Islamic indexes have higher level of risk than the conventional indexes, whatever the sub-periods. Consequently, this finding means that the Islamic indexes are riskier than the non-Islamic indexes. We also find that in most cases the Islamic indexes either outperform the non-Islamic indexes or there is no significant difference in performance between both indexes. These findings can be explained as a consequence of less diversification in Islamic indexes, leading to higher concentration risk in some sectors, such as basic material, industrial and technology firms. Further, we find some differences of risk and performance between the jurisdictions.

Suggested Citation

  • Charles, Amélie & Darné, Olivier & Pop, Adrian, 2015. "Risk and ethical investment: Empirical evidence from Dow Jones Islamic indexes," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 33-56.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:riibaf:v:35:y:2015:i:c:p:33-56
    DOI: 10.1016/j.ribaf.2015.03.003
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0275531915000288
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Boudt, Kris & Daníelsson, Jón & Laurent, Sébastien, 2013. "Robust forecasting of dynamic conditional correlation GARCH models," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 244-257.
    2. Hassan, M. Kabir & Girard, Eric, 2010. "Faith-Based Ethical Investing: The Case Of Dow Jones Islamic Indexes," Islamic Economic Studies, The Islamic Research and Training Institute (IRTI), vol. 17, pages 1-31.
    3. Whitney K. Newey & Kenneth D. West, 1994. "Automatic Lag Selection in Covariance Matrix Estimation," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 61(4), pages 631-653.
    4. Dewandaru, Ginanjar & Bacha, Obiyathulla Ismath & Masih, A. Mansur M. & Masih, Rumi, 2015. "Risk-return characteristics of Islamic equity indices: Multi-timescales analysis," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 115-138.
    5. repec:cii:cepiei:2014-q1-137-5 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Dowd, Kevin, 2000. "Adjusting for risk:: An improved Sharpe ratio," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 9(3), pages 209-222, July.
    7. Bali, Rakesh & Guirguis, Hany, 2007. "Extreme observations and non-normality in ARCH and GARCH," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 332-346.
    8. Elena Andreou & Eric Ghysels, 2002. "Detecting multiple breaks in financial market volatility dynamics," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 17(5), pages 579-600.
    9. Nicholas Bloom, 2009. "The Impact of Uncertainty Shocks," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 77(3), pages 623-685, May.
    10. Amélie Charles, 2008. "Forecasting volatility with outliers in GARCH models," Post-Print hal-00765466, HAL.
    11. Adel Ahmed, 2010. "Global financial crisis: an Islamic finance perspective," International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 3(4), pages 306-320, November.
    12. Benjamin M. Friedman & David I. Laibson, 1989. "Economic Implications of Extraordinary Movements in Stock Prices," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 20(2), pages 137-190.
    13. Balke, Nathan S & Fomby, Thomas B, 1994. "Large Shocks, Small Shocks, and Economic Fluctuations: Outliers in Macroeconomic Time Series," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 9(2), pages 181-200, April-Jun.
    14. Philippe Artzner & Freddy Delbaen & Jean-Marc Eber & David Heath, 1999. "Coherent Measures of Risk," Mathematical Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 9(3), pages 203-228.
    15. Alasrag, Hussien, 2010. "Global Financial crisis and Islamic finance," MPRA Paper 22167, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    16. Buerhan Saiti & Obiyathulla I. Bacha & Mansur Masih, 2014. "The diversification benefits from Islamic investment during the financial turmoil: The case for the US-based equity investors," Borsa Istanbul Review, Research and Business Development Department, Borsa Istanbul, vol. 14(4), pages 196-211, December.
    17. Wang, Ping & Moore, Tomoe, 2009. "Sudden changes in volatility: The case of five central European stock markets," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 33-46, February.
    18. Charles, Amélie & Darné, Olivier, 2014. "Large shocks in the volatility of the Dow Jones Industrial Average index: 1928–2013," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 188-199.
    19. Glosten, Lawrence R & Jagannathan, Ravi & Runkle, David E, 1993. " On the Relation between the Expected Value and the Volatility of the Nominal Excess Return on Stocks," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(5), pages 1779-1801, December.
    20. Paulo M. M. Rodrigues & Antonio Rubia, 2011. "The Effects of Additive Outliers and Measurement Errors when Testing for Structural Breaks in Variance," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 73(4), pages 449-468, August.
    21. van Dijk, Dick & Franses, Philip Hans & Lucas, Andre, 1999. "Testing for ARCH in the Presence of Additive Outliers," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 14(5), pages 539-562, Sept.-Oct.
    22. Andersen, Torben G. & Bollerslev, Tim & Dobrev, Dobrislav, 2007. "No-arbitrage semi-martingale restrictions for continuous-time volatility models subject to leverage effects, jumps and i.i.d. noise: Theory and testable distributional implications," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 138(1), pages 125-180, May.
    23. Hammoudeh, Shawkat & Li, Huimin, 2008. "Sudden changes in volatility in emerging markets: The case of Gulf Arab stock markets," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 47-63.
    24. French, Kenneth R. & Schwert, G. William & Stambaugh, Robert F., 1987. "Expected stock returns and volatility," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 3-29, September.
    25. M. Angeles Carnero & Daniel Peña & Esther Ruiz, 2007. "Effects of outliers on the identification and estimation of GARCH models," Journal of Time Series Analysis, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 28(4), pages 471-497, July.
    26. Suzanne S. Lee & Per A. Mykland, 2008. "Jumps in Financial Markets: A New Nonparametric Test and Jump Dynamics," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 21(6), pages 2535-2563, November.
    27. Shamsuddin, Abul, 2014. "Are Dow Jones Islamic equity indices exposed to interest rate risk?," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 273-281.
    28. Bollerslev, Tim & Chou, Ray Y. & Kroner, Kenneth F., 1992. "ARCH modeling in finance : A review of the theory and empirical evidence," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 52(1-2), pages 5-59.
    29. Hussein, Khaled A., 2004. "Ethical Investment: Empirical Evidence From Ftse Islamic Index," Islamic Economic Studies, The Islamic Research and Training Institute (IRTI), vol. 12, pages 22-40.
    30. Farhat Iqbal & Kanchan Mukherjee, 2012. "A Study of Value‐at‐Risk Based on M‐Estimators of the Conditional Heteroscedastic Models," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 31(5), pages 377-390, August.
    31. Ajmi, Ahdi Noomen & Hammoudeh, Shawkat & Nguyen, Duc Khuong & Sarafrazi, Soodabeh, 2014. "How strong are the causal relationships between Islamic stock markets and conventional financial systems? Evidence from linear and nonlinear tests," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 213-227.
    32. Mohamed Albaity & Rubi Ahmad, 2008. "Performance of Syariah and Composite Indices: Evidence from Bursa Malaysia," Asian Academy of Management Journal of Accounting and Finance (AAMJAF), Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia, vol. 4(1), pages 23-43.
    33. Carnero, M. Angeles & Peña, Daniel & Ruiz, Esther, 2012. "Estimating GARCH volatility in the presence of outliers," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 114(1), pages 86-90.
    34. Wang, Jia & Meric, Gulser & Liu, Zugang & Meric, Ilhan, 2009. "Stock market crashes, firm characteristics, and stock returns," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(9), pages 1563-1574, September.
    35. Ruiz, Esther & Peña, Daniel & Carnero, María Ángeles, 2001. "Outliers and conditional autoregressive heteroscedasticity in time series," DES - Working Papers. Statistics and Econometrics. WS ws010704, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Departamento de Estadística.
    36. Ho, Catherine Soke Fun & Abd Rahman, Nurul Afiqah & Yusuf, Noor Hafizha Muhamad & Zamzamin, Zaminor, 2014. "Performance of global Islamic versus conventional share indices: International evidence," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 110-121.
    37. Ashraf, Dawood & Mohammad, Nazeeruddin, 2014. "Matching perception with the reality—Performance of Islamic equity investments," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 175-189.
    38. Franses, Philip Hans & Ghijsels, Hendrik, 1999. "Additive outliers, GARCH and forecasting volatility," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 1-9, February.
    39. Abdelsalam, Omneya & Duygun, Meryem & Matallín-Sáez, Juan Carlos & Tortosa-Ausina, Emili, 2014. "Do ethics imply persistence? The case of Islamic and socially responsible funds," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 182-194.
    40. Amélie Charles, 2008. "Forecasting volatility with outliers in GARCH models," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 27(7), pages 551-565.
    41. Farooq Malik & Syed Hassan, 2004. "Modeling volatility in sector index returns with GARCH models using an iterated algorithm," Journal of Economics and Finance, Springer;Academy of Economics and Finance, vol. 28(2), pages 211-225, June.
    42. Charles, Amelie & Darne, Olivier, 2005. "Outliers and GARCH models in financial data," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 86(3), pages 347-352, March.
    43. Al-Khazali, Osamah & Lean, Hooi Hooi & Samet, Anis, 2014. "Do Islamic stock indexes outperform conventional stock indexes? A stochastic dominance approach," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 29-46.
    44. Mark J. Flannery & Aris A. Protopapadakis, 2002. "Macroeconomic Factors Do Influence Aggregate Stock Returns," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 15(3), pages 751-782.
    45. Fernandez, Viviana, 2006. "The impact of major global events on volatility shifts: Evidence from the Asian crisis and 9/11," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 79-97, March.
    46. Fredj Jawadi & Nabila Jawadi & Waël Louhichi, 2014. "Conventional and Islamic stock price performance: An empirical investigation," International Economics, CEPII research center, issue 137, pages 73-87.
    47. Seng Kok & Gianluigi Giorgioni & Jason Laws, 2009. "Performance of Shariah-Compliant Indices in London and NY Stock Markets and their potential for diversification," International Journal of Monetary Economics and Finance, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 2(3/4), pages 398-408.
    48. Adnan Kasman, 2009. "The impact of sudden changes on the persistence of volatility: evidence from the BRIC countries," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(7), pages 759-764.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. El Mehdi, Imen Khanchel & Mghaieth, Asma, 2017. "Volatility spillover and hedging strategies between Islamic and conventional stocks in the presence of asymmetry and long memory," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 39(PA), pages 595-611.
    2. repec:eee:inteco:v:151:y:2017:i:c:p:100-112 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Maghyereh, Aktham I. & Awartani, Basel, 2016. "Dynamic transmissions between Sukuk and bond markets," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 246-261.
    4. Charles, Amélie & Darné, Olivier & Kim, Jae H., 2017. "Adaptive markets hypothesis for Islamic stock indices: Evidence from Dow Jones size and sector-indices," International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 151(C), pages 100-112.
    5. repec:eee:riibaf:v:42:y:2017:i:c:p:727-744 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Umar, Zaghum, 2017. "Islamic vs conventional equities in a strategic asset allocation framework," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 1-10.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:riibaf:v:35:y:2015:i:c:p:33-56. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/ribaf .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.