IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Estimation of the equilibrium exchange rate: The CHEER approach


  • Keblowski, Piotr
  • Welfe, Aleksander


The paper presents the results of an investigation where the concept of a steady-state level of the exchange rate is equated with the capital market equilibrium based on the CHEER approach. The empirical analysis concentrates on Poland, because in this case the assessment of the equilibrium exchange rate is of vital importance. The prospect of the Polish currency joining the ERM2 provokes controversies and requires research into the economic consequences of accession to the EMU. The international transmission mechanisms affecting the Polish economy are identified within the VEqCM framework. The calculations indicate that in the last years of the analyzed sample (i.e. up to December 2006) the zloty/euro exchange rate was slightly overvalued, and the steady-state level was found to have been adjusting to the value of 4.1 zlotys.

Suggested Citation

  • Keblowski, Piotr & Welfe, Aleksander, 2010. "Estimation of the equilibrium exchange rate: The CHEER approach," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(7), pages 1385-1397, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jimfin:v:29:y:2010:i:7:p:1385-1397

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Ericsson, Neil R & Hendry, David F & Mizon, Grayham E, 1998. "Exogeneity, Cointegration, and Economic Policy Analysis," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 16(4), pages 370-387, October.
    2. Kwiatkowski, Denis & Phillips, Peter C. B. & Schmidt, Peter & Shin, Yongcheol, 1992. "Testing the null hypothesis of stationarity against the alternative of a unit root : How sure are we that economic time series have a unit root?," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 54(1-3), pages 159-178.
    3. Katarina Juselius & Ronald MacDonald, 2000. "International Parity Relationships between Germany and the United States: A Joint Modelling Approach," Discussion Papers 00-10, University of Copenhagen. Department of Economics.
    4. Charemza, Wojciech W. & Syczewska, Ewa M., 1998. "Joint application of the Dickey-Fuller and KPSS tests," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 61(1), pages 17-21, October.
    5. Harbo, Ingrid, et al, 1998. "Asymptotic Inference on Cointegrating Rank in Partial Systems," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 16(4), pages 388-399, October.
    6. Carrion-i-Silvestre, Josep Lluis & Sanso-i-Rossello, Andreu & Ortuno, Manuel Artis, 2001. "Unit root and stationarity tests' wedding," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 70(1), pages 1-8, January.
    7. MacDonald, Ronald, 2000. "Concepts to Calculate Equilibrium Exchange Rates: An Overview," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2000,03, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    8. Juselius, Katarina & MacDonald, Ronald, 2004. "International parity relationships between the USA and Japan," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 17-34, January.
    9. Michal Rubaszek, 2004. "A Model of Balance of Payments Equilibrium Exchange Rate," Eastern European Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(3), pages 5-22, May.
    10. Stephen G. Hall & Jennifer V. Greenslade & S. G. Brian Henry, 1999. "On the Identification of Cointegrated Systems in Small Samples: Practical Procedures with an Application to UK Wages and Prices," Computing in Economics and Finance 1999 643, Society for Computational Economics.
    11. Davidson, Russell & MacKinnon, James G., 1993. "Estimation and Inference in Econometrics," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195060119, June.
    12. Keblowski, Piotr & Welfe, Aleksander, 2004. "The ADF-KPSS test of the joint confirmation hypothesis of unit autoregressive root," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 85(2), pages 257-263, November.
    13. Oliver Holtemöller, 2004. "A monetary vector error correction model of the Euro area and implications for monetary policy," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 29(3), pages 553-574, September.
    14. Rahn, Jörg, 2003. "Bilateral equilibrium exchange rates of EU accession countries against the euro," BOFIT Discussion Papers 11/2003, Bank of Finland, Institute for Economies in Transition.
    15. Soren Johansen, 2002. "A Small Sample Correction for the Test of Cointegrating Rank in the Vector Autoregressive Model," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 70(5), pages 1929-1961, September.
    16. Dickey, David A & Pantula, Sastry G, 1987. "Determining the Ordering of Differencing in Autoregressive Processes," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 5(4), pages 455-461, October.
    17. Jörg Rahn, 2003. "Bilateral Equilibrium Exchange Rates of the EU Accession Countries against the Euro," Quantitative Macroeconomics Working Papers 20306, Hamburg University, Department of Economics.
    18. Gonzalo, Jesus, 1994. "Five alternative methods of estimating long-run equilibrium relationships," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 60(1-2), pages 203-233.
    19. Johansen, Søren & Juselius, Katarina, 1992. "Testing structural hypotheses in a multivariate cointegration analysis of the PPP and the UIP for UK," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 53(1-3), pages 211-244.
    20. Engle, Robert F, 1982. "Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity with Estimates of the Variance of United Kingdom Inflation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(4), pages 987-1007, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Grzegorz Masik, 2014. "Economic Resilience To Crisis. The Case Study Of The Pomorskie Region In Poland," Economy & Business Journal, International Scientific Publications, Bulgaria, vol. 8(1), pages 72-83.
    2. Kębłowski, Piotr & Welfe, Aleksander, 2012. "A risk-driven approach to exchange rate modelling," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 1473-1482.
    3. repec:sgh:gosnar:y:2017:i:4:p:5-38 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Piotr Roszkowski & Kamila Sławińska & Andrzej Torój, 2014. "BEER tastes better in a panel of neighbours. On equilibrium exchange rates in CEE countries," Collegium of Economic Analysis Annals, Warsaw School of Economics, Collegium of Economic Analysis, issue 34, pages 209-226.
    5. Giannellis, Nikolaos & Koukouritakis, Minoas, 2013. "Exchange rate misalignment and inflation rate persistence: Evidence from Latin American countries," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 202-218.
    6. Piotr Karp, 2015. "Asymetryczny wpływ zmian kursu walutowego na gospodarkę Polski," Gospodarka Narodowa, Warsaw School of Economics, issue 6, pages 29-49.
    7. Piotr Kębłowski, 2011. "The Behaviour of Exchange Rates in the Central European Countries and Credit Default Risk Premiums," Central European Journal of Economic Modelling and Econometrics, CEJEME, vol. 3(4), pages 221-236, December.
    8. Katarzyna Leszkiewicz-Kędzior, 2011. "Modelling Fuel Prices. An I(1) Analysis," Central European Journal of Economic Modelling and Econometrics, CEJEME, vol. 3(2), pages 75-95, June.
    9. Robert Kelm, 2010. "The Exchange Rate and Two Price Inflations in Poland in the Period 1999-2009. Do Globalization and Balassa-Samuelson Effect Matter?," Central European Journal of Economic Modelling and Econometrics, CEJEME, vol. 2(4), pages 315-349, September.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:jimfin:v:29:y:2010:i:7:p:1385-1397. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.